tile in vines, corn, olives, currants, cotton, honey
wax, &c. Pasturage is in general scanty; goats
and sheep are reared in considerable number ; but
horses and cattle are brought from the continent.
The wild animals are foxes, hares, and rabbits.
Prior to the French revolutiom these islands were
subject to Venice, but were ceded to France by
the treaty of Campo Formio (1797.) After re-
peatedly changing masters, the republic was plac-
ed under the protection of Great Britain by the
arrangements of the congress of Vienna; and a
constitution for this small state was drawn up and
ratified by the British government in July. 1817.
Ips, a town of Austria, near the conflux of the
Ips with the Danube, 22 m. W. of St. Polten.
Ipsala, a town of European Turkey, in Roma
nia, and a Greek archbishops sea. Near it, are
mines of alum : and red wine is an article of com-
merce. * It is seated on the Marissa, 43 m. S of
Ipsara, an island of the Grecian Archipelago,
15 in. N. W. of the island of Scio. To the W. is
another small island, called Anti-lpsara.
Ipsheim, a town of Franconia, in the principal-
ity of Bayreuth, 17 m. N. N. W. of Anspaeh.
Ipswich, a borough and principal town of Suf-
folk, Eng. It was once surrounded by a wall,
traces of which are yet to be seen. It is irregu-
larly built, and has declined from its former con-
sequence , but now contains 12 parish churches,
several meeting-houses for dissenters, a library,
several hospitals, a free-school, a commodious
market-place, a guildhall, a custom-house, and a
county jail. Much corn and malt are sent hence
to London, and great quantities of timber were
formerly sent to the kings dockyard at Chatham.
It has a considerable coasting trade, a small
share of foreign commerce, and sends ships to
Greenland. Vessels of large burden are obliged
to stop at some distance below the town. It is
the birthplace of cardinal Wolsey ; and is seated
on the Orwell, 26 m. S. E. of Bury St. Edmund,
and 69 N. E. of London.
Ipswich, p.t. Essex Co. Massachusetts, situa-
ted on a river of the same name, about a mile
from the sea. 23 m. N. E. of Boston. Pop.
2,951. The manufacture of lace is carried on in
this town to a considerable extent.
Ira, p.t. Rutland Co. Vt. Pop. 442. Also a p.t.
Cayuga Co. N. Y. Pop. 2,198.
Irasburg, p.t. Orleans Co. Vt. Pop. 860.
Irabatty. See Irrawaddy.
Irae, a province of Persia, comprehending the
greater part of the ancient Media. It is bounded
S. by Fars and Khuzistan, E. by Khorassan and
the Creat Salt Desert, W. by Kurdistan, and N.
by Azerbijan, Ghilan, and Mazanderan, and divi-
ded into five districts, Ispahan, Tehraun, Naen,
Mullager, and Kermanshaw.
Irac-Arabi (the ancient Chaldea), a province of
Turkey in Asia, bounded VV. by the desert of
Arabia, N. bv Kurdistan and Diarbeck, E. by
Khuzistan, and S. by the gulf of Persia and Ara-
bia. Bagdad is the captal.
Irbit, or Irbitikaia, a town of Rusia, in the gov-
ernment of Perm, an the river Irbit, and the fron-
tiers of Siberia. In the vicinity is a large iron-
work, which yields nearly 2,000 tons of iron a
year. 142 m. N. E. of Ekaterinenburg.
Ireby, a town in Cumberland, Eng. seated in a
valley, at the source of the Ellen, 10 m. N. E.
of Cockermouth, 303 N. N. W. of London.
Iredell, a county of North Carolina. Pop.
15,262. Statesville is the chief town
Ireland, the second inmagnitude of the British
Isles, is situated to the W. of Great Britian, in
the Atlantic O^ean. It is bounded on the N. W.
and S. by t. c Atlantic, and on the E. by the
North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St. Georges
Channel, which separate it from England. Its
greatest length is about 300 m. and its maximum
breadth about 110 m. The superficial contents
are estimated at about 20,000,000 of English acres.
Ireland is divided into four provinces ; namely,UI
ster, to the N., Leinster to the E., Munster to the
S., and Connaught to the W.; and these are
subdivided into 32 counties. Ulster contains the
counties of Down, Armagh, Monaghan, Caba~,
Antrim, Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, and
Donegal; Leinster has those of Dublin, Louth,
Wicklow, Wexford, Longford, East Meath, West
Meath, Kings cuunty, Queens county, Kilken-
ny, Ivilldare, and Carlow: Munster includes
Clare, Cork. Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary, and
Waterford ; and Connaught has Leitrim, Ros-
common, Mayo, Sligo, and Galway. The cli-
mate of Ireland is mild and temperate, but more
humid than in England. It is on the whole, of a
mountainous character, but well watered with
lakes and rivers; and the soil, in most parts is
very good and fertile : even in those places where
the bogs and morasses have been drained, there
xe2x80xa2is good meadow ground. It produces corn and
hemp, in great plenty. The cultivation of
flax is so abundant as to afford nearly the whole
supply ofthe great linen manufactures ofthe coun-
try ; there are so many cattle that beef and but-
ter are exported to foreign parts; and not only
the English, but other ships, frequently come to
be victualled here. The other commodities are
hides, wool, tallow, wood, salt, honey, and wax.
The commerce and manufactures have for many
years been greatly on the increase : the staple
branch of industry is the manufacture of fine lin-
en cloth, which is brought to great perfection
This country is well situate for foreign trade on
account of its many secure and commodious bays
and harbours. Its principal lakes are Lough
Lean, Lough Ern, Lough Neagh, and Lough Cor-
rib ; and its chief rivers are the Shannon, L|ffey,
Boyne, Suire, Nore, Barrow, Blackwater, and
Lee. The mineral productions of Ireland, which
were little known till of late, are now fast rising
into importance. The mining companies recent-
ly formed are nearly all of them eminently sue
cesful: copper, lead, iron, antimony, and Molyb-
denum, are now obtained : and some of the mines
are very productive. In the royalty of Glend
alough, in the county of Wicklow, are two veins