of rich lead ore, at one of which the lead is raised
at an expense of xc2xa31. 5s. per ton, and within 12
fathoms two parallel veins, equally rich, were dis-
covered in 1827. There are likewise productive
colleries and quarries of marble, slate, and free-
stone ; and numerous mineral springs, chiefly
chalybeate. Formerly this kingdom had a par-
liament, which was subordinate to that of Great
Britain; but, in 1800, it was deemed expedient
for the welfare of Ireland that it should be uni-
ted to great Britain. The two parliaments pass-
ed acts for that purpose, and the two kingdoms,
at the commencement of 1801, were styled the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland :
and 32 peers (four of them bishops) and 100 com-
moners of Ireland are elected to represent that
country in the Imperial Parliament, assembled in
England. The lord lieutenant of Ireland, as well
as the council, are appointed from time to time, by
the king. The country people in Ireland, are
remarkably hospitable and very warm in all their
affections. The peasantry in general, are how-
ever sunk in poverty and ignorance. Their diet
consists chiefly of coarse bread, potatoes and but-
termilk ; the favourite liquor is whiskey (usque-
baugh), a distillation from corn ; and the rural cot-
tage i3a wretched hovel of mud. Education has
been much neglected, and still continues to be
discountenanced by the Catholic clergy. Great
efforts have been made for some years past to re-
move this, chiefly by two societies established in
Britain, who have under their patronage a great
number of schools, in a highly prosperous state.
The established religion is the same as in Eng-
land, but the great majority of the people are
Catholics. The latter were long excluded from ail
civil and military distinction. This system of in-
tolerance, however^po longer exists; and there
is reason to hope that Ireland will speedily occu-
py its proper rank among European nations, and
that the British government will liberally encour-
age its growing literature, commerce, agricul-
ture, and manufactures.
Ireland, New, a long narrow island of the East-
ern seas, N. of New Britain, extending from N.
W. to S. E. about 190 m. and in general very nar-
row. The natives are Papuas, who go entirely
naked, smearing their faces, and powdering their
heads with white clay; their lints have only
an opening to crawl in on their hands and knees.
Their canoes, however are neatly formed of a sin-
gle tree, sometimes 90 feet long, and furnished
with outriggers. See Britain, New.
Ireland, p.v. Hampden Co. Mass.
Irishtown. See Kilkenny.
Irjab, a town of Afghanistan, in Cabul. seated
near a western branch of the Indus, 111 m. S.
S. W. of Cabul.
Irken, or Irkien. See Yarkan.
Irkutsk, the largest and least populous govern-
ment of the Russian empire, comprising all the
E. part of Siberia, from the Northern Ocean to
the frontiers of Chinese Tartary, and from the
boundaries of the government of Tobolsk to the
Eastern Ocean. This large territory was grad-
ually conquered xc2xbbnd appropriated by the Russians,
in their desultory excursion from Tobolsk. It is
divided into four provinces of I kutsk, Nertchinsk
Yakutsk, and Okhotsk.
Irkutsk, a town of Siberia, capital of the gov-
ernment of the same name, and the see of a
bishop. It is a place of considerable commercial
importance, from the caravans passing through it
which trade to China, and from its being the seat
of supreme jurisdiction over eastern Siberia
There are several churches and other edifices of
stone, and the wooden houses are large and con
venient. The inhabitants are estimated at 12,000
It stands on the river Angara, near the lake Bai
xe2x96xa0kal, 90u m. E. S. E. of Tobolsk.
Iroquois. See Lawrence, St.
Irrawaddy, or Irabatty, a considerable river of
Asia, which rises in Thibet, flows S. through the
kingdom of Birmah and Pegu, and enters the bay
of Bengal by several mouths. On its banks are
produced great quantities of the finest teak timber,
so much esteemed in ship-building. The princi
pal market for this valuable timber is Rangoon,
at the most eastern mouth of the river
Irtysch, a river of Siberia, which issues from
the lake Saisan, in Chinese Tartary, runs N. W.
between the two countries above 300 m., then
flows by Omsk, Tobolsk, and Samarof, below
which it joins the Oby.
Irville, p.v. Muskingum Co. Ohio.
Irvine, a river of Scotland, in Ayrshire, which
passes by Newmills and Kilmarnock to the town
of Irvine, below which it enters the frith of
hr me, a borough of Scotland, in Ayrshire
The chief trade is the exporting of coals to Ire
land. Here is a dock-yard, a large tan-work, and
manufactures of carpets, muslins, silks, lawns
&c. It is seated near the mouth of the river Ir
vine, 10 m. N. of Ayr, and 24 S. W. of Glasgow
Incell, a river in Lancashire Eng., which rises
above Bolton, flow's thence to Manchester, and
joins the Mersey, below Flixton.
Iricin, a county of Georgia bounding upon
Florida. Pop. 1,180.
Is sur Title, a town of France, in the depart-
ment of Cote d'Or, seated on the Tille, 12 m. N
Isabella, a town on the N. coast of Hispaniola,
founded by Christopher Columbus in 1493
Long. 71. 2. W., lat. 19. 55. N.
IsbelljsviUe, p.v. Todd Co. Ken.
Ischia, an island of Naples, 15 m. in circuit, ly-
ing 3 m. off the coast of Terra di Lavoro. It is
mountainous ; but abounds in minerals, sulphur
fruits, and excellent wines. It was taken by a
British and Sicilian force in 1807. Fresh water
is scarce, and the rain is collected in cisterns,
but the air is healthy, and there are several hot
baths, on which accounts it is much resorted to
Isc/tia, an episcopal city of Naples, capital of
the above island, with a strong fort. It stands
upon a rock, which is joined to the island by a
bridge, and is like a pyramid of houses piled one
upon another. At the end of the bridge, next
the city, are iron gates, which open into a subter-
ranean passage, through which the city is enter-
ed. Long. 14. 2. E., fat. 40, 41. N.
Iscnburg, Upper, a principality of Germany, on
the borders of Hanau, subject partly to Hesse-
Cassel. partly to Hesse-Darmstadt. It is general .
ly fertile, and contains 217 sq. m., and 47,500 in-
Iscnburg, Nczv, a small town in the foregoing
principality, 3 m. S. of Frankfort on the Maine, j
Isco, a town of Italy, in Bresciano, on the S. E '
side of a lake of the same name, 10 m. N. W. of
lser, a river of Bavaria, which rises on the con-
fines of Tyrol, and, passing by Munich an.i
Landshut, joins the Danube, between Straubing