Langholm, a town of Scotland, in Dumfriesshire,
with an extensive cotton manufacture; seated
on the Esk, on the borders of England, 20 m. N.
Oy W. of Carlisle.
Langonge, a town of France, department of
Lozere, 21 m. N. E. of Mende.
Langon, a town of France, department of Gi
ronde, with an extensive trade in wine and
brandy. It has a good harbour and is seated on
the Garonne, 10 m. N. of Bazas.
Langport, a town in Somersetshire, Eng., situ-
ate on a hill, by the river Parrett, which is navi-
gable for barges to the Bristol Channel. 10 m.
S. E. of Bridgewater, and 128 W. by S. of
Langres, a town of France, department of Up-
per Marne. Its cutlery wares are in high esteem.
It is seated on a mountain, near the source of the
Marne, 40 m. N. E. of Dijon. Lon*. 5. 19. E.,
lat. 47. 52. N.
Languard Fort, a strong fort of England, situ-
ation a sandy point ofland on the Suffolk side
of the harbour of Harwich, but within the limits
of Essex. At high water it is surrounded by the
sea, and becomes an island nearly a m. from the
shore. It was erected for the defence of the port
of Harwich, and has a garrison, under the com-
mand ofa governor.
Languedoc, a province of the S. of France, di-
vided at the revolution into the departments of
Upper Garonne, Aude, Heranlt, Gard, Lorere,
and Ardeche. It extends on the E. to the Rhone,
and W. to the border of Gascony, and comprises
a superficial extent of 16,000 sq. m. The Upper
or AVestern Languedoc had Toulouse for its capi-
tal ; and the Lower or Eastern, Montpelier.
Lanier, a township of Preble Co. Ohio.
Lanjan, or Lanchang, a city, and the capital of
the kingdom of Laos, at least of the southern
part, to which it gives name. The kings palace
is said to be of vast extent, and the houses of the
grandees are also large, and highly ornamented.
It is situate on the AV. side of the river Mecon,
400 m. N. N. W. of Cambodia. Lon*.: 101. 38.
E., lat. 18. 30. N.
Lanmcur, a town of France, department of
Finisterre, 6 m. X. E. of VIorlaix. '
Lann>t;s. a town of France, department of
Finisterre 19 m. X. of Brest.
Lnnrhn. a town of France, department of Cotes
du N rd. with a trade in wine, hemp, and butter.
In the ntfighV'orhood are mines of iron and sil-
ver. I? is suited on the Guer, 39 m. AV. X. AV
of St. Btienx. Lin*. 3. 27. AAr., lat. 43. 44.
Lmr.ou. i town of France, department of Xord,
8 m. E. X. E. of Linle.
Lrnsi-gues. a town of France, department of
Heranlt. !xe2x96xa0 m. W. of Montpelier.
Lansd >n. a mountain in Somersetshire, Eng.
4 m. from B-ith, 513 fret high.
LanAng. a township of Tompkins Co. N. Y.
Lansirdrtrgi. p.t. Rensselaer Co. N. Y. It
contains four churches, a eoort-house, a jail, and
an academy ; and is seated on the E. side of the
Hudson, opposite the S. branch of the Mohawk,
9 m. N. N. E. of Albany. Pop. 2.663.
Lazno, a town of the Sardinian states, in Pied-
mont, on the river Stura, over which is an ele-
gant bridge, 12 m. N. W. of Turin.
Lao, a town of the island of Cuba, 25 m. W.
Lao, or Leao, a city of China, of the second
rank, in the province of Chan-si. Lon*. 112. 57
E., lat. 37. 4. N.
Laon, a decayed town of France, capital of the
department of Aisne, with a castle. The prirei-
pal trade consists in corn and wine. It is cele-
brated for a battle fought under its walls, between
the French and allies, in March, 1814. It js
seated on a mountain, near the Ardon, 77 m. N,
E. of Paris. Long. 3. 43. E.,lat. 49. 34. N.
Laos, a kingdom of India beyond the Ganges,
extending from 12 to 18. N. lat., and bounded by
Laktho, Siam, Cambodia, Tonquin, and Cochin-
China, to the last of which it is nominally sub-
ject. It is surrounded by mountains covered
with forests ; but the country is in general flat,
and the soil fertile, being watered by numerous
rivulets from the mountains and a number of
canals from the Mecon, which flows from N. to
S. through the whole region. It abounds in rice,
fruit, honey, wax, and cotton; and the principal
drugs are benzoin and lac. Gold and silver are
found in certain places of the river; and it has
mines of iron, lead, and tin. It is very thinly in-
habited, the greater part of the population con-
sisting of migrating iribes, who wage an almost
constant internal warfare. The religion, lan-
guage, and manners are much the same as in
Siam. Lanjan is the capital.
L/ipland. a northern region of Europe, now be-
longing to Russia and Sweden, bounded on the N.
by the Arctic Ocean, E. by the White Sea, S. by
Sweden, and AV. by Norway and the Atlantic.
It was formerly divided into three parts, Russian,
Swedish, and Danish (or Norwegian) Lapland.
The first, the most dreary region of ihe whole,
consisted of three districts, Bellamoreskoi, Mare-
manskoi, and Terskoi; but these are now7 all in-
cluded in the general appellation of the circle of
Kola, which includes also the tract on the E. of
the Torneo called Kemi-Lapmark, which was
ceded by Sweden in 1809. Swedish Lapland, or
Lapland Proper, is subdivided into six provinces,
now comprised in the government of Umea. Nor-
wegian Lapland, or Finmark, the most northerly
of all, now belongs also to Sweden. The general
aspect of Lapland is mountainous. The principal
rivers are, the Tornea, which issues from a lake
of the same name, and, after a course of 300 m.,
falls into the gulf of Bothnia ; the Tana, and the
Alten, both of which fall into the Frozen Ocean.
The lakes are numerous, and many of them very
extensive. The maritime districts are of uniform
and rather mild temperature ; hut in the interior
the winter is intensely cold : in the most northern
parts the sun remains below the horizon from the
20th of November to the 10th of January; and
the whole country is covered with snow and ice
from the beginning of September to the middle of
March. In summer the sun continues two months
above the horizon ; and in the valleys and plains
the heat is excessive, favoring the production of
numerous insects, particularly moschetoes, which
greatly infest the inhabitants. Barley is the com-
mon grain, but rve and oats are also cultivated in
inome places, and a few culinary vegetables arc
raised. The trees are fir, birch, larch, and small
beech, which form vast though not thick forests.
Metals and minerals are found in abundance : gold
has been found at Suappavara ; copper, iron, lead,
zinc, and plumbago, are found in various places ;
and in the S. of Swedish Lapland several mines
are wrought. Among tjie other internal produc-
tions of this country are limestone, marble, gyp-
sum, rock-crystal, jasper, amethysts, and garnets