Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 533
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industry, and there is little occasion for clothing
amid the heat of their climate, they have a gener-
al habit of seeking present pleasure, and no care
for the future. The only necessary of life that
appears to be deficient is salt, which is the more
wanted among them in consequence of their sub-
sisting chiefly on vegetable food ; and it is a pro-
verbial expression of a man’s riches to say that
he eats salt with his food. This important article
they receive from Zahara by caravans of trading
Arabs. They also receive arms, hardware, glass-
es, and trinkets, from the W., by the Europeans,
arid, in the interior, by the caravans of Cairo,
Fezzan, and Morocco. For these they give in re-
turn gold dust, ivory, and elephants’ teeth. The
kind of government that exists among the negro
nations is by no means uniform. Many districts
are governed by a number of independent petty
chiefs, who are engaged in frequent wars with
each other. In other places, the talents of indi-
vidual chieftains have been able to reduce consid-
erable tracts of territory under their dominion;
and hence some flourishing towns have sprung
up. Many of the towns are fortified with ditches
and high walls. Domestic slavery prevails in a
very great degree among all the negro states.
AVhen the tropical rains fall, or are so deficient
that the sun burns up the face of the country, it
is not uncommon for parents to sell their children,
and even themselves, for bread. A free man may
also lose his liberty hy being taken prisoner in
war, or on account of the crimes of murder and
sorcery ; and also in consequence of insolvency.
The knowledge of the negroes, with regard ta
religion and all speculative subjects, is extremelv
limited; but they have much superstition, and
are implicit believers in witchcraft and magic.

Negropont, an island in the Grecian Archipela-
go, lOO m. in length and 18 in breadth, anciently
called Euboea. It is near the N. coast of Livadia,
and separated from it by the strait of Euripus over
which is a bridge. It abounds in corn, wine, oil,
and fruits. It forms a part of Independent Greece.

Negropont, a strong city, capital of the above
island, and an archbishop’s see, with a good har-
bour. The walls of the city are 2 m. and a half
in circumference, but the suburbs are much larg-
er. It is seated on a strait of the same name, 30
in. X. E. of Athens and 260 S. W. of Constanti-
nople. Long. 24.
8. E., lat. 38. 30. N.

Nthnrend. a town of Irak, in Persia, famous for
a ba'tle fought near it between the caliph Omar
and Yex Degerd. king
of Persia, in 638. when the
latterhis life and kingdom. It is 200 m.N. W.
yf Is-**han. Long. 48. 10. E.. lat. 34. 20. N.

Neiiimhrrg. a town of Prussia, in the govern-
ment -of Konigsberg, with a castle on a mountain,
75 m E. of Calm. Long. 20. 20. E., lat. 53.

22. S.

N'uienst'in. a town of Germany, in Hesse Cas-
. sel. S m. S. S. W. of Cassel.

I Ncira.rtce of the Banda Islands, and the seat of
their goverament. It has a spacious harbour,
but difficult
to be entered ; and ships anchor un-
der the
cannon of two forts. Long. 129. 30. E.,
4. 50. S.

Neisse. a city of Prussian Silesia, in the govern-
of Oppeta. It is a place of great strength,
one of the finest towns in Silesia. The inhab-
itants carry
on a considerable trade in linens and
wine. This
place was taken in 1741 by the Prus-
sians, who after
the peace, in 1742. built a citadel,
to which they
gave the name of Prussia. In 1758 it
was besieged
by the Austrians, hut ineffectually;

in 1807 it surrendered to the French; and was fin
ally ceded to Prussia in 1814. It is seated on a
river of the same name, 48 m. S. by xc2xa3. of Breslau.
Long. 17.20 E., lat. 50. 24. N.

Neitra, a town of Hungary, and a bishop’s see
with a castle and a college. It is situate on ariv
er of the same name, 34 m. N. of Gran.

Nelisuram, a town of Hindoostan, on the W.
coast, 33 m. N. E. of Mangalore and 40 N. W. of

Nellenlurg, a former landgraviate of Suabia,
now belonging to Baden.

Nellenburg, a town of Wurtemberg, former.y
the capital of a landgraviate of Suabia, with a
citadel on a mountain, 22 m-. N. of Constance
Long. 9. 5. E.,lat. 47. 57. N.

NeUora, a town and fortress of Hindoostan, in
the Carnatic, near the Pennar, 85 m. N. by W. of
Madras. Long. 79. 57. E., lat 14. 26. N.

Nelson, a county of the E. District of Virginia.
Pop. 11,251. Livingston is the capital. A county
of Kentucky. Pop. 14,916. Bardstown is the cap-

Nelson, ph. Cheshire Co. N. H. 33 m. S. W
Concord. Pop. 875.; ph. Madison Co. N. Y. Pop.
2.445; p.v. Portage Co. Ohio. Also townships in
Buckingham Co. fj. C. and York Co. U. C.

Nelson's Rieer, in North America, forms the out-
let of Lake Winnipeg, and flowp into Hudson’s
Bay in lat. 57.2. N. Taken in connexion with the
Saskatchewan, its most distant head stream, its
extreme length is 1,500 m.

Nelsoncille, p .v. Athens Co. Ohio, 54 m. S. E.

Nelson’s fort, a British factory at the mouth of
Nelson’s River.

Nemcea, a village of Greece, in the Morea, 20
m. S.
W. of Corinth, anciently celebrated for its

Nemours, a town of France, department of
Seine-et-Marne, with an old castle ; seated on
the Loing, between two hills, 45 m. S S. E. of

Nenagh, a town of Ireland, in the county of
Tipperary, with a castle,'seated on a branch of
the Shannon, 19 m. N. E. of Limerick and 23 N.
of Cashel.    t

Neocastro, a town and fort of Romania, on the
strait of Constantinople, 12 m. N. of Constantino-

Neot’s, St., a town in Huntingdonshire, Eng
and a considerable trade in coal; seated on the
Ouse, over which is a strong bridge, 56 m. N. N.
W ofLondon.

Neoundah, a town of Birmah, with manufac-
tures of japanned ware, seated on the Irrawaddy,
4 m. N. N. E. ofPagham.

Nepaul, a kingdom of Northern Hindoostan,
bounded N. by the Himmaleh Mountains, S. by
the provinces of Bahar, Cude, and Dehli, E. by
Bootan, and the territory of the rajah of Si Kim.
The soil is productive and in some places yields
two crops in the year. The mountains of Nepaul
contain mines of copper and iron; and, although
commerce is not encouraged, it sends to Bengal
ivory, wax, honey, resin, timber, bastard cinna-
mon, cardamoms, walnuts, &c.; and takes, in
return, muslins and silks of Bengal, carpets, spi-
ces, tobacco, and European goods. In 1811, in
consequence of the repeated encroachments ofthe
Nepaulese, the British invaded their territorw^
and dictated to them a treaty of peace in iclfi!
By this treaty Nepaul is limited on the
W to the
river Gogra; the British have gained possession
2 v

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