Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 546
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NEY    546    NIC

3.000 licensed groceries and taverns; 2,380 li-
censed cartmen and porters ;
2,110 paupers in the
almshouse. The real estate of the city is valued
at 87,603,389, dollars, the personal estate at 37,684,
938 dollars; total, 127,288,518.

Most of the periodicals are newspapers; the
whole number is 48, eleven of which are daily.
The bookselling trade is thriving, and there are
some establishments, in which the republication
of English works is carried on upon a very large
scale. One of these has issued between 4 and

500.000 volumes in a year. The number of pub-
lic schools does not exceed a dozen ; their annual
expense to the city is 25,995 dollars. This de-
ficiency however, in the means of common edu-
cation, is in some degree made up by a large
number of charity schools. The Lyceum of
Natural History, and the New York Atheneum,
are respectable'associations for the promotion of
science and literature. The Chamber of Com-
merce is an incorporated body of merchants, who
devote themselves to the study of mercantile af-
fairs. Many other institutions for various objects
we can only mention by name, as the institution
for the Deaf and Dumb; the Horticultural Socie-
ty ; the National Academy of the arts of Design ;
the Asylum for the Insane, and many charitable
institutions. The government of the city is com-
posed ofa Mayor, 10 Aldermen, and 10 Assistants.

The rapid increase in population and trade
which New York has experienced within a few
years, and its commanding position for a commer-
cial mart, added to the increasing facilties for in-
ternal navigation, and the growing prosperity of
the back country, myst secure it a permanent supe-
riority over all other cities in the United States.
Its population exhibits a great diversity of char-
acter. The ancient Dutch settlers have left tra-
ces of their national manners among their de-
cendants, and the number of foreigners constant-
ly residing here is very great. The most nume-
rous are the Irish, who are estimated at 20,000.
The French and Spanish are next in number.
The city was founded by the Dutch in 1614, and
was by them called New Amsterdam. It was

taken by the English in 1664, and received the
name of New York. It is in lat. 40. 42. 40. N.
long. 74. 0. 45. W., 210 m. S. W. Boston, 90
N. E. Philad., 227 N. E. Washington, 140 S.
Albany, and 390 S. Montreal.

New York. ph. Albemarle Co. Va. 23 m. W.
Charlotte ; a village in Champaign Co. Ohio; p.
v. Montgomery Co. Ten. 110 m. N. W. Mur-

New Zealand. See Zealand.

Neyland, a town in Suffolk, Eng. 57 m. N. E. of
London. It has some manufactures.

Neytraeht, a town of Upper Hungary, capital of
a county, 40 m. N. E. Presburg.









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Nezpique, a river of Louisiana flowing into the

Ngan King Fou, a city of China, capital of the
western part of the province of Kiang Nan.

Ngan lo Fou, a large city of China in the prov
ince of Hou Quang. 420 m. W. by S. of Nankin.

Niagara, a river of North America, connecting
Lakes Erie and Ontario. It is 35 m. in length
and flows northerly ; about midway between the
two lakes it separates into two channels forming
Grand Island. A short distance below the union
of these channels are the celebrated falls ofNiag
ara universally allowed to be the grandest cata
ract in the world. Half a mile above the falls,
the river is a furious rapid which sweeps away to
certain destruction,every thing involved in it; the
the river is here three quarters of a mile broad,
and from this point it rushes down with increased
velocity to the fall where it leaps in one immense
mass down a perpendicular precipice 160. feet
in depth, with a roar that may be heard 40 miles.
The cataract forms an irregular semicircle, the
deepest hollow of which is called the Horse Shoe
Fall, and is on the Canada side. At the brink of
the fall stands a small island called Goat Island,
which breaks the great sheet of water as it rushes
over the precipice, but the waters unite a/rain be-
fore they reach the bottom. A bridge is thrown
across the falls from the American side to the isl-
and. On the British side a few yards below is a
projection called Table Rock, commanding a mag-
nificent view of the falls. From this rock a spiral
staircase leads down to the foot of the cataract
where visitors may pass under the fall between
the sheet of water and the rock. The path leads
far under the excavated bank of the river, which
in some places forms a roof overhanging 40 feet.
The fall of such an immense mass of winter, pro-
duces violent whirls in the air, and the sprav is
driven out with such force that no one can"ap-
proach the edge of the cataract without being
drenched to the skin. It is difficulteven to draw
a breath here, and in entering this tremendous
cavern there is danger of being blinded by the
strong driving showers of spray ; the greatest
distance to which it is possible to penetrate with
in the sheet of winter is 150 feet. The banks of
the river for several miles below the falls are per-
pendicular precipices of rock, and there is reason
to believe that the cataract wins formerly much
farther down the river, the rock having gradually
worn away to the present spot. A cloud of spray
is continually rising from the foam of waters and
exhibiting in the sunshine a brilliant rainbow.
The island upon the summit is about a mile in
circumference, and is covered with trees. In
summer crowds of visitors are continually resort-
ing hither from all parts of the world ; and there
are many public houses in the neighbourhood for
their accommodation.

Nias, a small island, near the W. coast of the
island of Sumatra. Long. 97. 0. E., lat. 0. 40. N.

Nibe, a town of Denmark, in N. Jutland, 9 m.
W. S. W. of Alburg.

Nibiano, a town ofltaly, in the duchy of Parma,
16 m. S. W. of Piacenza.

Nicaragua, a province of Guatemala, hounded
on the N. by Honduras, E. by the Atlantic Ocean,
S. E. by Costa Rica, and S. W. by the Pacific
Ocean. It is 400 m. from E. to W. and 120 from
N. to S. It is well wintered by lakes and rivers,
and produces plenty of sugar, cochineal, and fine
chocolate. Leon de Nicaragua is the capital.

Nicaj agua, a lake in the foregoing province


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