many exaggerated statements have been made
respecting it, some of which state the amount
as high as 5,000,000 dollars annually.
A great part of the country is covered with
forests of pitch pine. In the plains of the low
country, this tree is almost exclusively the natu-
ral growth of the soil. It much exceeds in height,
the pitch pine of the Northern States. The tar,
turpentine and lumber, afforded by this valuable
tree, constitute one half the exports of the state.
The moisture of the air, in the swampy regions,
loads the trees with long, spongy moss, which
hangs in clusters from the limbs, and gives
the forest a singular appearance. The mis-
tletoe is often found upon the trees of the
interior. This state also produces several valu-
able medicinal roots, as ginseng, Virginia, and
Seneca snakeroot, &c. The rich intervals are
overgrown with canes, the leaves of which con-
tinue green through the winter, and afford good
fodder for cattle.
The most common articles of culture are majze
and wheat, to which the nature of the soil seems
well adapted. Some attention is paid to cotton
and rice. Tobacco is raised in the uplands, as
well as most of the productions of the Middle
States. Agricultural societies exist in different
parts of the state, and sums of money are annu-
ally paid by the government for their assistance.
Agriculture, however, is in a backward condi-
The produce of the interior is generally carried
to the trading towns in Virginia and South Car-
olina for a market. Timber and plank, grain,
flour and naval stores are the chieffexports. The
shipping of the state amounted in 1828, to54,094
tons. The imports for the same period, were
283,347 dollars ; the exports of domestic produce,
In the mountainous parts ofthe west, the climate
is temperate, and the air salubrious ; this region
xe2x80x98s one of the most healthy in the country, and
though the days in summer are hot, the nights
are refreshed by cool breezes. In all the eastern
parts, the climate is unhealthy, and intermittent
fevers are common in summer and autumn. The
inhabitants have a pale,yellowish,and bilious com-
plexion. The winters are very mild. The wheat
harvest takes place in the beginning of June ; the
maize harvest early in September.
North Carolina is divided into 62 counties.
The population is 735.470, of whom 246,462 are
slaves. Ril-igh is the capital. The other large
towns are Newbern. Wilmington and Fayetteville.
The legislature is styled theGenerai Assembly,and
consists of xc2xbb Senate and a House of Commons.
Eachc unty 'L - ses on? senator and two repre-
sentatives Tie governor is chosen annually by
the legislature, and is ineligible three years out
of six. Voters ::r senators must be freeholders.
The clergy are excluded from the legislature.
The Baptists are tie most numerous religious sect;
they have 272 clcrtles : the Presbyterians 126;
the Lutherans 45; ihe Episcopalians 11; the
United Brethren 4. Toe Methodists have 32
preachers, and there are a number of societies of
Quakers. The slate has a university at Chapel
Hill, and a small literary fand. but which is not
yet available for tbe purpose of edscalion.
The first permanent settlements In North Caro-
lina were made by fugitives and seceders from
Virginia, between 1640and 1650. The constitu-
tion was the work of the celebrated John Locke.
The chief magistrate was called the Palatine, and
there was an hereditary nobility, with the titles
of Landgrave and Cazique. The legislature was
called a parliament. This constitution was found
upon trial to be ill adapted to the character of
the people, and it was abolished in 1693. " This
colony had been connected with that of South
Carolina, till 1729, when they were separated,
and the government of both was assumed by
the king. This continued till the present consti-
tution was established in 1776.
North castle, ph. Westchester Co. N. Y. on the
Hudson, 16 m. from Kingsbridge, Pop. 1,653.
btorth East, ph. Dutchess Co. N. Y. on the
Hudson, 90 m. N. New York. Pop. 1,689 xe2x80xa2 pv
Erie Co. Pa.; p.v. Cecil Co. Maryland.
Aorth End, p.v. Matthews, Co. Va.
Northfield, p.v. Merrimack Co. N. H. on the
Merrimack, 14 m. above Concord. . Pop. 1,169;
a township on Staten Island N. Y. Pop. 2,171 ; p.t
Franklin Co. Mass. on the Connecticut, 80 m.
W. Boston. Pop. 1,757 ; a township of Washing-
ton Co. Vt. Pop. 1,412; a village of Essex Co.
N. Y. and a township of Portage Co. Ohio.
North Hero, an Island of Vermont, in Lake
Champlain. It constitutes a township. Pop.
A'orthington, p.v. Hartford Co. Conn. 9 m. W
A'orth Kingston, ph. Washington Co. R. I. on
Narraganset Bay, 20 m. S. W. Providence. Pop.
A'orthlech, a town in Gloucestershire, Eng. 80
m. W. by N. of London. ,
A'orth Middleton, p.v. Bourbon Co. Ken.
North Moreland, p.v. LuArne Co. Pa.
A'orth Mountain, a portion of the Kittatinny
range in Pennsylvania.
A'orth port, ph. Waldo Co. Me. 6 m. S. Belfast.
North Providence. See Pawtucket.
North Salem, ph. Westchester Co. N. Y. Pop.
Northumberland, a county of England, border-
ing upon Scotland, containing 1,850 sq. m. Pop.
198,965. It contains the richest coal mines in the
world. Also two counties in Upper and Lower
Northumberland, a county of the W. District of
Pennsylvania, Pop. 18,168. Sunbury is the cap-
ital. Also a county of the E. District of Virginia
Northumberland, ph. Northumberland Co. Pa.
Northwood, ph. Rockingham Co. N. H. 20 m
E. Concord. Pop. 1,342.
A'orton, a village in Essex Co. Vt.; ph. Bristol
Co. Mass. 7 m. N. W. Taunton. Pop. 1,484; ph.
Delaware Co. Ohio; ph. Medina Co. Ohio.
A'orton, or Chipping A'orton, a town of Oxford-
shire, Eng. 74 m. N. W. London.
A'orton Sound, an inlet on the W. coast of N.
America, in lat. 64, 55.
A'orwnlk, ph. Fairfield Co. Conn. on Long Is-
land Sound. 12 m. S. W. Fairfield. Pop. 3.793;
ph. Huron Co. Ohio. 14 m. S. from Lake Erie.
Norway, a country in the N. of Europe, be-
longing to Sweden, the most westerly part of the
ancient Scandinavia. It is bounded on the W.
and N. by the Northern Ocean, E. Dy Swedish
Lapland and Sweden, and S. by the Cattegat-
extending from the Naze in lat. 57. 30., to the N
Cape in lat. 71. 10. Its breadth, which is very
unequal, is from 40 to 280 m. It is natural^*
formed into two divisions, namely, Northern ani