character is materially different. They are more
gay, lively, and active. They are said to be ex-
tremely ostentatious, and to surpass all other na-
tions in politenessxe2x80x94if the most profuse and hy-
pocritical flattery may be so called. Their dress
is lighter than that of the Turks, and they are
lavish in the use of jewels and gold ornaments.
The beard is held in high estimation, and every
art employed to render it thick and tufted.
They are, however, the most learned people of
the E.; poetry and the sciences may even be con-
sidered as their ruling passion. In the former,
their fame is decidedly superior to that of any oth-
er oriental nation. The names of Hafiz, Ferdusi,
and Sadi, are classic even in Europe. The reli-
gion of the country is Mahomedism, of the sect
of Ali. In the beginning of the last century,
Persia was overrun by the Afghans, who carried
fire and sword through its remotest extremities,
and reduced its proudest capitals to ashes. The
atrocities of the Afghans were avenged, and the
independence of Persia vindicated, by Nadir
Shah; but, though the victories of this daring
chief threw a lustre on his country, after his death
the country was almost torn to pieces by civil war,
till the fortune of arms gave a decided superiori-
ty to Kurreem Khan. His death gave rise to an-
other disputed succession, with civil wars, as
furious as before. At length Aga Mahommed, a
eunuch, raised himself to the sovereignty^nd not
only retained it during his lifetime, but transmit-
ted is to his nephew, the present sovereign, who
assumed the title of Futteh Ali Shah. He is rep-
resented as an accomplished prince ; and his eld-
est son is said to be highly promising.
Persian Gulf, a sea or inland lake, between
Persia and Arabia. The entrance near Ormus is
not above 30 m. over ; but within it is from 120
to 250 in breadth, and the length from Ormus to
the mouth of the Euphrates is 500 m. The
southern side is particularly celebrated for its
Person, a County of N. Carolina, Pop. 10,027.
Roxborough is the Capital.
Perth, a borough of Scotland, capital of Perth-
shire. It lias been the residence of the sovereigns
of Scotland, and the seat of the parliament and of
the supreme courts of justice. Near the town
are some saline springs, called Pitcaithly Wells,
deemed beneficial in. scorbutic cases. Perth is
seated on the S. W. side of the Tay, which is
navigable for small vessels, but the largest are
obliged to unload at Newburg. Over the river is
a modern bridge of 10 arches, the most beautiful in
Scotland, to the town of Kinnoul. Here are sev-
eral incorporated trades, some of which have halls.
The salmon fishery is a great article of trade ;
and the manufactures of linen and cotton goods,
leather, boots, shoes, and gloves are considerable.
35 m. X. by W. of Edinburgh. Long. 3. 20. W.,
lat. 56. 24. N.
Perthes, a town of France, department of Seine-
et-Marne, 6 m. S. W. of Melun.
Perthes, a town in the department of Upper
Marne, 6 m. N. W. of St. Dizier.
Perthshire, a county of Scotland, 76 m. long
and 68 broad ; bounded W. by Argyleshire, N.
by the shires of Inverness and Aberdeen, E. by
Angus-shire, S. E. by the frith of Tay and the
counties of Fife and Kinross, and S. by the frith
of Forth and the counties of Clackmannan, Stirl-
ing, and Dumbarton. It contains 4,068,640 Eng-
lish acres, is divided into 76 parishes, and the
number of inhabitants in 1821 was 139,050. The
country exhibits scenes of rugged snd striking
magnificence, contrasted with the most beautiful
ones of cultivation. The Grampian mountains
cross it from S. W. to N. E., the highest of
which is Benlawers. The country N. W. of this
ridge is mountainous, and contains several lakes ;
but the opposite side, though not free from hills,
is more low and fertile. The principal rivers are
the Forth and Tay. Perth is the capital.
Pertigi, a town of the island of Sardinia, 19 m
S. E. of Castel Arogonese.
Pertuis, a town ofFrance, department of Vau
cluse, near the Durance, 11 m. N. of Aix. 38 S
E. of Avignon.
Peru, an independent state of S. America, the
largest of the former Spanish viceroyalties, bound
ed on the N. by the republic of Colombia, W. by
the Pacific Ocean, S. by Chile, and E. by Brazil-
It is 750 m. in medium length, from N. to S., and
about 500 in breadth. Rain is unknown in the
S. parts; but in the N., where the mountains are
not so high, it often rains excessively. There
are large forests on the sides of the mountains
which advance near the sea; but none of the
trees are like those iq Europe. Peru has been
long celebrated for its mines of gold and silver,
which are the chief or only source of its riches,
Besides the produce of the mines, the commodi-
ties exported are sugar, Vienna wood, cotton, Pe- .
ruvian bark, copper and cocoa. The fiercest
beasts of prey in Peru are the puma and jaguar,
inaccurately called lions and tigers by the Euro-
peans ; for they possess neither the undaunted
courage of the former, nor the ravenous cruelty
of the latter. The lama, or American camel, in-
habits the cold districts, and the elk, bear, deer, ar
madilloes, monkeys, &c., are numerous. Among
the birds, the most remarkakle is the condor,
which is entitled to pre-eminence over the flying
tribe, in bulk, strength and courage. The river
Guayaquil abounds with alligators, and the neigh-
bouring country swarms almost as much with
snakes and vipers as that round Porto Bello does
With toads. When the Spaniards landed in this
country, in 1530, they found it governed by sov-
ereigns called Incas, who were revered by their
subjects as divinities. and the inhabitants were
found to be much more polished than the natives
of other parts of America, those of Mexico ex-
cepted. These were soon subdued by the Span-
iards, under the command of Francic Pizarro.
After the assassination of Pizarro, in 1541, the
country continued a prey to civil contentions
and insurrections, till about the year 1562, when
Tupac Amaru the son of Manco Capac, who
had taken refuge in the mountains, was attacK-
ed by the viceroy Toledo. The inca surrender-
ed himself, and was led to the scaffold amid the