Turks, by the Austrians in 1637; and is seated
near the Orlava, 18 m. N. N. WT. of Brod.
Posen, Grand duchy of, a province of the Prus-
sian states, comprising that part of Poland which
was restored to Prussia in 1815. On the E. it is
bounded by the new kingdom of Poland, and S.
and W. by Silesia and Brandenburg. It is divided
into the two governments of Posen and Brom-
berg, contains about 12,000 sq. m. with 800,000
inhabitants, and is watered by the Netz, the War-
tha, the Obra, and the Brahe.
Posen, the capital of Prussian Poland, and of
the government of the same name, is a bishops
see, and has a university, and a castle on an isl-
and in the river Wartha. The cathedral is mag-
nificent. The suburbs are extensive, and contain
many fine buildings. Til? river Wartha frequent-
ly inundates the town, but is very beneficial to its
trade with Germany. By the partition of Po-
land, in 1773, Posen became subject to the king
of Prussia. In 1808 it was entered by the French
army, under marshal Davoust, and added to the
duchy of Warsaw, till 1815, when it was re-
stored to Prussia. It is seated in a pleasant
plain, 27 m. W. by S. of Gnesna. Long. 17. 0.
E., lat. 52. 24. N.
Posey, a county of Indiana. Pop. 6,883. Mount
Vernon is the capital.
Posneck, a town of Saxony, in the principality
of Aldenburg. It has manufactures of cloth and
leather, and is seated on the Gams, near its con-
flux with the Orla, 8 m. N. E. of Saalfeld.
Possession Island, an island in the S. Pacific,
near the N. point of New Holland. Here captain
Cook hoisted the British colours, and took posses-
sion of all the E. or N. E. coast of New Holland
in the name of king George III., which he called
New S. Wales. Long. 141. 39. E., lat. 10.
Possession Island-, an uninhabited island in the
S. Pacific. Long. 141. 40. E., lat. 46. 30. S.
Possinko, a town of Portugal, in Estremadura,
10 m. N. E. of Santarem.
Post Oak, p.v. Roane Co. Ten.
Potenza, a town of Naples, in Basilicata, seated
near the sourse of the Basiento, 11 m. S. by W.
Potomac, a river of the United States, which
rises in the N. W. part of Virginia, and separates
that state from Maryland, almost its whole course,
till it enters the W. side of Chesapeak Bay. It
is navigable nearly 300 m. for large ships and
where it enters the Chesapeak is 7 1-2 m. wide.
Its whole length is 550 m. The passage of the
Potomac, through the mountains of the Blue
Ridge, at Harpers Ferry, presents the appear-
ance of an immense rent, three quarters of a mile
wide, through a stupendous wall of rocks. The
broken fragments of the mountain which lie scat-
tered all around, and its craggy front, torn down
to the base, attest the violence of tbe disruption,
and forcibly remind the spectator of the period,
when the mountain ridge opposed a barrier to the
stream, and when its collected waters swelled to
such a mass as to tear away the mountain from
its foundation. Washington, Alexandria and
Georgetown are situated upon this river.
Potomac and Ohio Canal, called also the Chesa-
peak and Ohio Canal, is designed to unite the Po-
tomac with the Ohio. It leaves the Potomac at
Georgetown and proceeds up the north-eastern
bank of the river through the mountains, by a
tunnel 4 miles in length, and down the vallies of
the Youghiogerty ana Monongahela to the Ohio.
Its length will be 360 m. and its width 60 feet
It was begun July 4th 1828.
Potosi, a town of Bolivia. Here are the best
silver mines in all America, in a mountain in the
form of a sugar-loaf. Silver was as common in
this place as iron is in Europe; but the mines
are now much exhausted, or at least little is ob-
tained in comparison of what was formerly pro-
duced. The country around is naked and barren.
The town is seated at the bottom of the mountain
of Potosi, 260 m. W. N. VV. of Arica. Long. 67
30. W., lat. 19. 50. S.
Potosi, ph. Washington Co. Missouri, 70 m.
W. S. W. St. Louis. It is surrounded by nu-
merous lead mines. See Missouri.
Potsdam, a province of the Prussian states, in
Brandenburg, comprehending the districts for-
merly termed the Ucker Mark, the Mark of Preg-
nitz, and the greatest part of ihe Middle Mark.
It is bounded N. by Pomerania and VV. Prussia,
and S. and W. by Saxony. The city of Berlin,
with a small district lying around it, forms a dis-
tinct government. Potsdam contains an area of
about 8,000 sq. m., with 488,000 inhabitants.
Potsdam, the capital of the foregoing govern-
ment, situated on an island formed by the rivers
Spree and Havel. The public buildings display
great magnificence and taste. The royal palace
is an admirable structure, and the houses near i
are almost all built in the Italian style. In the
market place is a marble obelisk, 75 feet in height;
also marble statues of the first four kings of Prus-
sia. The garrison church is large, and has a mar-
ble pulpit, under which is the tomb of the Great
Frederick, whose remains are enclosed in a
wooden coffin, covered with copper, without any
ornament or victorious trophies, to recall the mem-
ory of his actions. On a hill, near the city, is the
royal palace of Sans Souci, which is only one
story high, yet remarkable for its grandeur and
magnificence. The inhabitants of Potsdam have
manufactures of silk, velvet, cotton, linen, &c.
It was entered without opposition on the 24th of
October, 1805, by the French, who carried away
with exultation the sword and scarf worn by the
immortal Frederick during the seven years war.
13 m. W. S. W. of Berlin. Long. 13. 49. E., lat
52. 52. N.
Potsdam, ph. St. Lawrence Co. N. Y. 90 m.
W. Plattsburg. Pop. 3,650.
Potter, a county of the W. District of Penn-
sylvania. Pop. 1,265. Cow'dersport is the capi-
tal ; also a township of Centre Co. Pa.
Potter's Holloio, p.v. Albany Co. N. Y
Potterstown, a village of Hunterdon Co. N. J.
Pottersnille, p.v. Louisa Co. Va.
Potteries, The, a district in Staffordshire, Eng.
extending about 10 rn. in length and one and a
half in breadth. It comprises the towns and vil-
lages of Burslem, Hanley, Lane End, Etruria,
Stoke upon Trent, Tunstall, Longport, Shelton,
Brownhills, &c., situated in a part of the coun-
ty abounding in coal, and clays of great variety
in colour and texture, which, together with the
great canal intercourse kept up with all parts of the
Kingdom, furnish a large portion of industry z.nd
Potion, a town in Bedfordshire, Eng. 12 ri. E
of Bedford and 48 N. by W. of Loruon.
Potts grove, a township of Montgomery Co Pi
on the Schuylkill.
PotlstoiDn, p.v. Montgomery C>. ftn. v th-
Pottsville, p.v. Schuylkill Vt is