Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 644
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RUS    644    RUS

Rupelmonde, a town of the Netherlands, in E.
Flanders, 8 m. S. W. of Antwerp.

Rupert, a river of New Britian, which issues
from the lake Mistassin, and flows W. into the
S. E. part of James Bay. In its course it forms sev-
eral small lakes; and at its mouth is the remains
of Fort Rupert, formerly a settlement of the Hud-
son Bay Company. Long. 76. 58. W., lat. 51.

3. N.

Rupert, ph. Bennington Co. Vt. Pop. 1,318.

Ruppin, a town of Prussia, in Brandenburg. It
stands on the W. side of a lake, formed by the
river Rhin ; and on the opposite side of the lake
is Old Ruppin, with an ancient castle, the resi-
dence of its former counts, whose burial place is
at New Ruppin. This town was entirely con-
sumed by fire in 1787, but is rebuilt in a hand-
some manner, and greatly augmented. It has a
considerable trade, a manufacture of cloth, and
noted breweries. 33 m. N. N. W7.' of Berlin.
Long. 13. 0. E., lat. 55. 6. N.

Ruremonde, or Roermonde, a strong town of the
Netherlands, in the provinceof Limburg, seated
at the conflux of the Roer with the Meuse, 28
m. N N. W. of Maestricht. Long. 6. 4. E., lat.

51. 11. N.

Ruscek, a town of Bulgaria, defended by a cas-
tle, with manufactures of silk, cotton, linen, wool-
en, tobacco, &c. It was taken by the Russians
in 1810, and a Turkish army was defeated near it
in 1811. It is seated on the Danube, 135 m. N.
by E. of Adrianople. Long. 26. 50. E., lat. 44

12. N.

Rush, a county of Indiana. Pop. 9,918. Rush-
ville is the capital; also townships in Centre,
Dauphin, Susquehanna, Schuylkill and North-
umberland Cos. Pa.

Rushford, ph.'Alleghany Co. N. Y. Pop. 1,119.

Rushville, p.v. Fairfield Co. Ohio. Ontario Co.
N. Y. and Rush Co. Ind.

Russell, a county ofethe W. District of Virginia.
Pop. 6,717. Lebanon is the capital.

Russell, ph. Hampden Co. Mass. 108 m. S. W.
Boston. Pop. 509; p.v. St. Lawrence Co. N. Y.
Pop. 659.

Russelville, p.v. Chester Co. Pa. Logan Co. Ken.
Brown Co. Ohio and Franklin Co. Alab.

Russ, a town of E. Prussia, on the Niemen, 23.
m. S. by E. of Memel.

Russelsheim, a town of Germany, in Hesse-
Darmstadt, situate on the Maine, 6 m. E. of Mentz
and 13 N. W. of Darmstadt.

Russey, a town of France, department of Doubs,
34 m. E. by S. of Besangon.

Russia, a vast empire, partly in Asia and part-
ly in Europe; bounded on the N. by the Frozen
Ocean, E. by the Pacific, S. by Great Tartary,
the Caspian Sea, Persia, Turkey in Asia, and the
Black Sea, and W. by Turkey in Europe, Poland,
the Baltic Sea, and Sweden. There were three
countries that had the name of Russia .xe2x80x94namely,
Red Russia, which formed the S. part of Poland ;
White Russia, which comprehended the E. part
of Lithuania; and Black Russia, which included
the governments of Kaluga, Moscow, Tula, Re-
zan, Volodimir, and Yaroslaf; and hence his im-
perial majesty takes the title of emperor of all the
Russias. This empire, exclusive of the acquisi-
tions from the Turks and from Poland (see
forms a square, whose sides are 2,000 m.
each A country of such vast extent must lie in
different climates, and the soil and products must
be as different. The most fertile part is near the
frontiers of Poland, the inhabitants of which are

able to supply their neighbours with corn. The
N. part is not only colder, but very marshy, and
overrun with forests, inhabited chiefly by wild
beasts. Tbe country affords a variety of com
modities, which, being of great use to foreigners,
produce a considerable annual balance of trade in
favor of Russia. The home commodities are
chiefly sables, black furs, the skins of black and
white foxes, ermines, hyaenas, lynxes, bears, pan
thers, wolves, martins, white hares, &c., red and
black juchte or Russian leather (which for colour,
smell, and softness, is not equalled in the world),
copper, iron, talc, tallow, wax, honey, potash, tar,
linseed and train-oil, castor, isinglass, hemp, flax,
thread, sail-cloth, calimanco, Siberian musk,
soap, feathers, timber, &c. To these commodi-
ties may also be added almost all the merchan
dise of China, India, Persia, Turkey, and some
European countries.

This extensive empire is divided into 51 pro
vinces. The principal towns are Petersburgh,
Moscow, Riga, Odessa. Tula, Wilna, &c. The
religion is that of the Greek or Eastern Church,
which is governed by a patriarch, under whom
are the archbishops and bishops. Every priest is
called a
papa or pope, and of these there were
formerly 4,000 in Moscow alone. They have
images in their churches ; and the priests give a
passport to those that are dying, addressed to St.
Nicholas, who is desired to entreat St. Peter to
open the gates of heaven, as they have certified
that the bearer is a good Christian. A consider-
able number of the Russians profess the Mahom-
etan religion, and many are still pagans. The
inhabitants of the Swedish provinces are Luther-
ans ; and Protestants, as well as Papists, enjoy
full liberty of conscience. There are many con-
vents for both sexes, but it has been wisely or-
dained that no male can enter into a monastic
life before he is 30 years of age ; and that no fe-
male can take the veil till she is 50, and even
then not without the licence of the holy synod.
The inhabitants in general are robust, well
shaped, and of pretty good complexions. They
are great eaters, and very fond of brandy. They
use bathing, but smoke no tobacco, lest tbe smoke
should dishonour the images of the saints, which
they keep in great veneration; however, they
take a great deal of snuff, made of the tobacco
brought from the Ukraine. The Russians were
formerly wholly employed in agriculture, feeding
of cattle, hunting and fishing; and he was
thought a learned man who could read and write.

Peter the Great undertook to introduce arts
and sciences, and in 1724, the first university
was founded that ever was in Russia : there is
also an academy of sciences at Petersburg, sup
plied with eminent professors. With respect to
dress, a long beard is in high estimation with the
people of Russia, notwithstanding the efforts of
their monarchs to root it out; and it is only those
depending upon government, in the army and
navy, who have yet complied with the custom
and wish of the court. Those who retain their
beards, retain likewise the ancient dress; the
long swaddling coat, either of skins, or of coarse
cloth lined with skins, in winter, and in summer
of cloth only. About their middle they have a
sash of any colour; but what they most affect is
green or yellow. Their shirts are fashioned as
women’s; and their necks, being exposed to the
cold, become very hard and impenetrable frorn
this practice. Government continue to exert
every nerve to compel the subjects to adopt the

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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