Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 656
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bui.dings, 17 large churches, and 14 handsome
convents, besices others less considerable. The
Ebro runs through the city, dividing it into two
parts; and on its banks is a handsome quay, which
serves for a public walk. The Holy Street is the
largest, and so broad that it may be taken for a
square. The cathedral is a spacious Gothic build-
ing; but the finest church is that of Nuestra Sen-
ora del Pilar, and a place of the greatest devotion
in Spain. They tell us that the Virgin, while yet
living, appeared to St. James, who was preaching
the gospel, and left him her image, with a hand-
some pillar of jasper. This image stands on a
marble pillar, with a little Jesus in her arms, or-
namented with a profusion of gold and jewels,
and illuminated by a multitude or lamps and wax
lights. The town-house is a sumptuous struc-
ture ; and in the hall are the pictures of all the
kings of Arragon. Saragossa has no manufactures,
and but little trade. It is seated in a large plain
(where the Ebro receives two other rivers), which
produces all kinds of fruit in great abundance.
A victory was obtained here over the French and
Spaniards in 1710, but it was abandoned by the
allies soon after. Saragossa is also celebrated for
the brave defence it made under general Palafox,
when besieged by the French in 1808-9.    180

m. N. E. oFMadrid. Pop. 41,000.

Saranac, a small river of N. Y. flowing into
Lake Champlain at Plattsburg.

Sciratof, a government of Russia, lying along
both sides of the Wolga, and having on one side
the country of Astracan and on the other that of
the Don Cossacks. The extent is estimated at

91,000 sq. m. with a pop. not exceeding 1,000,000.
It is divided into 12 districts, of which that of the
same name is the principal.

Saratof, the capital of the above government,
is surrounded by a wall and is neatly built, chiefly
of wood. The inhabitants (about 5,000) have a
brisk trade in fish, caviar, salt, &c. It is seated
on the side of a mountain near the Wolga, 374
m. N. by W. of Astracan. Long. 46. 1. E., lat.
51. 32. N.

Saratoga, a county of N. Y. Pop. 36.616. Balls-
ton is the capital. Also a ph. in the same Co. 35
m. N. Albany. Pop. 2.461. Here General Bur-
goyne surrendered his army to Gen. Gates. Oct.
17, 1777.

Saratoga Springs, ph. Saratoga Co. N. Y. 39
m. N. Albany. Pop. 2,204. In this town and the
neighbourhood are situated those mineral springs
which draw to this quarter in summer, crowds of
visitors from all quarters of the country. The
village is located on an elevated spot of ground,
surrounded by a productive plain country, and
enjoys the ’advantage of a salubrious air and cli-
mate, contributing much to the health and benefit
of its numerous visitants. The springs, so justly
celebrated for their medicinal virtues, are situated
on the margin of a vale, bordering the village on
the east, and are a continuation of a chain of
springs discovering themselves about 12 m. to the
south, in the town of Ballston, and extending
easterly, in the form of a crescent, to the Quaker
village. In the immediate vicinity are 10 or 12
springs, the principal of which are the Congress,
tne Hamilton, the High Rock, the Columbian, the
Flat Rock, the Washington and the President.
About a mile east, are found a cluster of mineral
springs which go hy the name of the Ten Springs.
The Congress Spring is owned by Doct. John
Clarke; to whose liberality the public are much
indebted for the recent improvements that have
been made in the grounds adjoining the fountain,
and the purity in which its waters are preserved.
This spring was first discovered about 30 years
since, issuing from a crevice in the rock, a few
feet from its present location. Here it flowed for
a number of years, until an attempt to improve
the surface around it produced an accidental ob-
struction of its waters, which afterwards made
their appearance at the place where they now
flow. It is enclosed by a tube sunk into the
earth to the distance of 12 or 14 feet, which
secures it from the water of the stream, adjoining
to which it is situated. Besides a handsome en-
closure and platform for promenading, the pro-
prietor has thrown an awning over the spring for
the convenience of visitants.

The High Rock is situated on the west side
of the valley, skirting the east side of the village,
about half a mile north of the Congress. The
rock enclosing this spring is in the shape of a
cone, 9 feet in diameter at its base, and 5 feet in
height. It seems to have been formed by a con-
cretion o'f particles thrown up by the water, which
formerly flowed over its summit through an aper-
ture of about 12 inches in diameter, regularly di-
verging from the top of the cone to its base. This
spring was visited in th* year 1767 by Sir Wil-
liam Johnson, but was known long before by the
Indians, who were first led to it, either by acci-
dent or by the frequent haunts of beasts, attracted
thither by the saline properties of the water. A
building was erected near the spot previous to the
revolutionary war; afterwards abandoned, and
again resumed ; since which the usefulness of the
water has, from time to time, occasioned frequent
settlements within its vicinity.

Between the Red Spring in the upper village,
and the Washington in the south part of the lower
village, are situated most of the other mineral
springs in which this place abounds. At three
of the principal springs, the Hamilton, Monroe
and Washington, large and convenient bathing
houses have been erected, which are the constant
resort for pleasure as well as health, during the
warm season.

The mineral waters both at Ballston and Sara-
toga are supposed to he the product of the same
great laboratory, and they all possess nearly the
same properties, varying only as to the quantity
of the different articles held in solution. They
are denominated acidulous saline and acidulous
chalybeate. Of the former are the Congress,
(which holds the first rank), the Hamilton, High
Rock and President, at Saratoga; and of the
latter are the Columbian, Flat Rock and Wash
ington, at Saratoga, and the Old Spring and
United States, at Ballston. The waters contain
muriate of soda, hydriodate of soda, carbonate oi
soda, carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia,
oxide of iron, and some of them a minute quan-
tity of silica and alumina. Large quantities of
carbonic acid gas are also contained in the waters,
giving to them a sparkling and lively appearance.
The Congress, in particular, the moment it is
dipped, contains nearly one half more than its
bulk of gas; a quantity unprecedented in any na-
tural waters elsewhere discovered.

The Congress Hall is situated within a few
rods of the Congress spring, to which a handsome
walk, shaded with trees, has been constructed for
the convenience of guests. The space in front
of the building is occupied by three apartments,
each of which is enclosed by a railing, termina-
ting at the front entrances of the piazza, and eaoh

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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