Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 661
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SAX    661    SCA

The Saxons are first mentioned in history by
Ptolemy, who describes them about the year 160
as a rude tribe, inhabiting Holstein and part of
Jutland. Soon after they appear to have advanced
to the S. and W., acquiring an extension of ter-
ritory. In the 5th century, on the migration of
a part of the Franks into Gaul, the Saxons ac-
quired a farther extension of territory, viz. the
country now forming the grand duchy of Olden-
burg, with part of Hanover and Prussian West-
phalia. When the Britons were forsaken by their
Roman defenders, they applied and obtained as-
sistance from the Saxons, against the Scots and
Piets. After maintaining, during many years a
firm resistance to the arms of Charlemagne, the
Saxons were at last obliged to submit to his con-
ditions, which involved the payment of an annual
tribute and their conversion to Christianity . The
title of duke of Saxony was conferred on Witti-
kind, their chief, whose family, after ruling some
time, was succeeded by that of Billung, and af-
terwards by a branch of that of Guelf, which
ruled in Bavaria. The electoral dignity was sub-
sequently conferred on the Wittemburg line of
the house of Ascania, and, on its extinction, on
the margraves of VIeissen, with the title of elector.
The first elector, surnamed Frederick the War-
like, began his reign in 1422; he was the founder
of the university of Leipzig.

The next memorable event in the history of
Saxony was the reformation, in the beginning of
the lGth century. The prince did not openly es-
pouse the cause of Luther, but, by protecting him
from persecution, he contributed much to the
establishment of his doctrines. His successor
John Frederick, styled xe2x80x98 the magnanimous,’ being
defeated by Charles V., was stripped of his states
and dignity, which the emperor conferred on
Maurice, margrave of Meissen, the cousin of the
elector, and the ancestor of the present house of
Saxony. Maurice, putting himself at the head
of the Protestant interest, proved a full match for
the artful Charles, who in 1552 had almost fallen
into his hands, and was compelled to sign the con-
vention of Passau, since considered the bulwark
of the religious freedom of Germany. The Saxons
took an active part in the thirty years’ war, which
terminated in the peace of Westphalia in 1648.
In 1697 the temptation of the crown of Poland,
vacant by the death of Sobieski, induced the
reigning elector, Augustus I., to profess himself
a Catholic, a change which, however, did not
prosper. The Swedes under Charles XII. not
only conquered Poland, hut invaded Saxony,
bringing great distress upon the countrv until
1708, when relief was obtained by the march of
Charles into Russia, and its disastrous issue;
after which the crown of Poland was resumed by

In the war of 1740, between Prussia and Aus-
tria, Saxony remained neutral. In that of 1756
the elector was tempted to take a part by the
flattering promises of Austria; but, instead of an
accession ofterritory, his dominions were ravaged,
and many of his subjects ruined in this dreadful
contest. In the war against France no decided
part was taken by Saxony until 1806, when the
elector sent all his troops to the held, in support
of the king of Prussia, whose subsequent over-
throw enabled Bonaparte to attach the Saxons to
his cause. The title of elector was changed to
that of king. Prussian Poland was afterwards
added to the Saxon dominions, and in 1809 was
nearly doubled by cessions obtained from Austria.















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But these acquisitions, disproportioned to the in
herent strength of Saxony, led, as formerly, to
disastrous results. The Russians re-occupied
Poland in the beginning of 1813, and, joined by
the Prussians, made Saxony the scene of the
great continental struggle against Bonaparte.
The battles of Lutzen and Bautzen, the attacks
on Dresden, and the decisive engagements at
Leipzig, were followed by the retreat of Bonaparte
to the Rhine; and his too faithful ally, the king of
Saxony, was deprived of the government of his
territories. By the decision of the congress of Vi
enna the northern and eastern part, containing no
fewer than 850,000 inhabitants, was separated from
the kingdom,and transferred to Prussia. The king
of Saxony protested against this dismemberment,
but, dreading insurrection and bloodshed, he at
length acquiesced. Dresden is the capital.

Saxony, a provine of the Prussian states, com
prising almost the whole of the cessions made by
the king of Saxony at the congress of Vienna, and
the principalities lying to the N. of the duchy of
Anhalt, and to the W. of the rivers Elbe and Ha-
vel. It contains an area of 9,830 square
miles, with more than 1,000,000 of inhabitants,
and is divided into the governments of Magde-
burg, Merseburg, and Erfurt. The surface is in
general level, but the soil varies greatly, being
in some places dry and sandy, and in others a
heavy loam. The principal productions are corn,
hemp, flax, and chicory. The inhabitants, except
in the small district called Eichsfeld, are almost
all Protestants, and are in general active and
industrious. Magdeburg is the chief town.

Saxton’s River, a river in the state of Vermont,
which joins the Connecticut at Westminster.

Saybrook, ph. Middlesex Co. Conn. at the
mouth of Connecticut River. It is one of the
oldest towns in the state and was settled in 1639
by Lord Brooks. It is 34 m. E. New Haven.
45 S. E. Hartford. Pop. 4,980.

Saycock, one of the islands of Japan, divided
from Niphon by a narrow channel. The Dutch
factors are premitted to reside in the little island
of Disnia, which is on the VV. side of this. Long.
132. 28. E., lat. 34. 0. N.

Sayn, a town and castle of the Prussian states,,
in the duchy of Nassau, which gives name to a
small county. 6 m. N. of Coblentz and 50 N.
W. of Frankfort.

Saypan, the pleasantest and most fertile of the
Ladrone islands, 40 miles in circuit, with a safe
port called Cantanhitda on the W. side. Long.
146. 10. E., lat. 15. 22. N.

Scagen, a town of Denmark, in N. Jutland,
on a promontory of the same name, at the en-
trance of the passage from the ocean into tbe
Categat. Long. 10. 0. E., lat. 57. 38. N.

Scdlanova, a sea-port of Asia Minor, near the
site of the ancient Ephesus, with a castle. The
trade consists chiefly in wine, raisins, corn, and
leather. 40 m. S. S. E. of Smyrna. Long. 27.

31. E., lat. 37. 54. N.

Scalea, a town of Naples, in Calabria Citra,
formerly a large city, but now greatly decayed.
It is seated on the W. coast, 25 m. S. E. of Poli
castro. Long. 15. 54. E.,lat. 40. 0. N.

Seanderoon. See Alexandretta.

Scania. See Sehonen.

Scarboroughy a sea-port and borough in York-
shire, Eng. It is seated on the declivity of a
high rock5 which has such scraggy sides that it
is almost inaccessible. On the top of this rock is
{* large green plain, with a little well of fresh w&t


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