the country, and no one can buy any merchan-
dize till he has first had the choice of them. He
generally keeps a numerous army, besides 3,000
elephants, and can take 25,000 men into the field.
The mandarins, that is, the principal men who
daily attend the palace, are 3,000 in number, and
are whipped very severely with split rattans for
the least fault. The temples and priests are very
numerous; the latter are distinguished from the
laity by an orange-coloured garment, and by
keeping their heads, beards, and eye-brows close
shaved. They have schools for the education of
their children, and scarcely any are found among
them who cannot read and write. This country
has been much oppressed by the Birmans, to
whom the king of Siam, after a long and destruc-
tive war, ceded the W. maritime towns on the
Bay of Bengal, in 1793.
The Cassowary, one of the largest birds in the
world, is found here. Their tame cattle are
neeves, buffaloes, and hogs, of which they have
plenty about their farms. There are large and
dangerous crocodiles, and serpents 20 feet long.
uncultivated, and thin of people. The principa.
riches of this country consist of fine skins and
furs. Here is found the Sable a small animal
Siam, or Juthia, a city, the capital of the above
kingdom. It contains a great number of tem-
ples, convents, chapels, columns and other deco-
rations. The kings palace, and some others,
differ from the common habitations by occupying
a more extensive space, being better constructed,
and of a greater height, but they never exceed
one floor. The Dutch have a factory here, and
merchants from different countries come here to
trade. In 1766 this city was taken by the Bir-
mans. It is situate on an island in the river
Menan, 50 m. N. of its mouth in the gulph of
Siam and 360 S. E. of Pegu. Long. 100. 50.
E., lat. 14. 18. N.
Siang-yang, a city of China, of the fiist class,
in the province of Hou-quang, on the river Han,
530 m. S. S. W. of Pekin. Long. 111. 40. xc2xa3.,
iat. 32. 5. N.
Siara, a province of Brazil, lying between those
of Maragnon and Petaguel. The capital, of the
same name, has a fort on a mountain, near the
mouth of the river Siara. Long. 39. 35. W., lat.
3. 30. S.
Siaskoi, a town of Russia, in the government of
Petersburg, near the lake Ladoga, 24 m. N. E. of
New Ladoga. Long. 30. 47. E., lat. 60. 16. N.
Siberia, a large country, comprehending the
northern part of the Russian empire in Asia. It
is bounded on the E. by the Pacific Ocean, S. by
Great Tartary, W. by European Russia, and N.
by the Frozen Ocean. It extends 3,500 m. in
length from E. to W. and 1,200 in breadth from
N. to S. The S. part, produces all the necessa-
ries of life, but the N. is extremely cold, almost
furnishing one of the most valuable furs in the
world. There are also' rich mines of iron and
copper, and several kinds of precious stones, par-
ticularly topazes of a beautiful lustre, magnets of
an extraordinary size, and even whole mountains
of loadstone. The inhabitants are of three sorts
Pagans, or the natives of the country, Mahome j
tans, and Russians. The former dwell in forests
in the winter, and in the summer on the banks,
of rivers. Their garments are the skins of wild
beasts. All their riches are comprised in their
bows, arrows, a knife, and a kettle. They make
use of reindeer and dogs, instead of horses, to
draw their sledges ; and live in huts, which they
remove from place to place. Those in the south-
ern parts are somewhat more civilized. They
have horses with which they go a hunting, and
their houses, though poor, are not shifted from
place to place. The Russians settled here are
much the same as in their native country. It is
through this vast tract of land that the Russian
caravans travel every year, when they carry their
merchandize to China. The principal rivers are
the Oby, Lena, Irtish, Yenisei, and Okota. The
western part of Siberia is comprised in the Rus-
sian government of Tobolsk, and is divided into
the circles of Tobolsk Proper, Tomsk, Yeniceysk,
and Koly van; all the eastern part is contained in
the government of Irkutsk, and divided into the
circles of Irkutsk Proper, Nertschink, Yakout.sk,
and Okhotsk, which last includes Kamtschatka
and the -islands. Siberia is the place to which
criminals, as well as persons under the displeasure
of the court, are commonly banished from Russia.
Christianity has at present made little progress
in this country, though considerable efforts have
of late years been made by the Russian govern-
ment as well as by the British Missionary Socie-
ties. Tobolsk is the capital and the residence of
Sical, a town of Mexico, on the N. coast of Yu
catan, 70 m N. W. of Merida. Long. 90. 30. W.,
lat. 39. 30. N.
Sichem, a town of the Netherlands, in S. Bra
bant, to the S. of which is a celebrated monastery
It is seated on the Demer, 18 m. E. of Mechlin.
Sicily, an island of the Mediterranean Sea, about
165 m. long and 112 broad. Its form is that of a
triangle, terminating in three capes. Sicily is
separated from the kingdom of Naples by a narrow
strait, called the Faro; but, as Messina is situated
on it, it is called the Faro of Messina. The two
kingdoms of Naples and Sicily have nearly the
same climate, and the productions are much the
same, but Sicily abounds much more in corn, par-
ticularly in the valleys of Noto and Mazara.
The valley of Demona has more forests and fruit
trees than the two others. The three great di-
visions of Sicily are named from those valleys;
but since 1815 it has been divided into seven in-
tendancies; viz., Palermo, Messina, Catania
Girgenti, Syracuse, Trapani, and Calatanissetta.
The chief towns in the Val di Mazara are, Paler
mo, Marsala, Trapani, Termini, and Mazara; in
3 L 2