S. of Tobolsk. Long. 84. 19. E., lat. 57. 4.
Tondern, a well-built town of Denmark, capital
of a district of its name, in the duchy of Sleswick,
with a considerable trade in corn, cattle, silk, and
fine lace. It is seated on the river Widaw, and
on a bay of the German Ocean, 28 m. S. by E. of
Ripen and 40 N. W. of Sleswick. Long. 9. 40.
E., lat. 54. 58. N.
Tongataboo, one of the Friendly Islands, 20
leagues in circuit. It was discovered by Tasman,
who called it New Amsterdam, and was visited
in 1773 and 1777 by Cook, who lay at anchor on
the W. part. It has the best harbour, or anchor-
ing-piace, to be found among these islands. The
land is low, with many gentle risings, and very
fertile, being wholly laid out in plantations, with
roads or lanes for travelling. It is the seat of
government for all the other islands, and the or-
dinary residence of all the principal chiefs. Long.
174. 46. W., lat. 21. 9. S.
Tongeron, or Tongres, a town of the Nether-
lands, in the territory of Liege, formerly one of
the most flourishing cities in the Roman province
of Gallia Belgica. It is seated on the Jeckar, 13
m. N. W. of Liege.
Tong-gin, a city of China, of the first rank, in
Koei-tcheou, 850 in. S. S. W. of Pekin. Long.
108. 37. E., lat. 27. 40. N.
Tongho, a city of Birmah, capital of a province
of the same name, noted for producing the best
bctel-nut. It has a fort, deemed the strongest in
the Birman empire, and is seated near the Se-
tang, 90 m. N. of Pegu. Long. 96. 45. E., lat.
13. 45 N.
Tong-tchang, a city of China, of the first rank,
in Chang-tong, seated near the N. end of the
grand canal, 210 m. S. of Pekin. Long. 116. 12.
E., lat. 36. 30. N.
Tong-tchou, a small city of China, in Petche-li,
seated on the Pei-ho, 170 m. from its mouth and
12 E. by S. of Pekin.
Tong-tchuen, a fortified city of China, of the
first rank, in the province of Se-tchuen. The
inhabitants are all soldiers, who have followed
the profession of arms from father to son. 1,000 m.
S. W. of Pekin. Long. 102. 30. E., lat. 25.56. N.
Tongusians, or Tonguses, a people who inhab-
it the E. part of Siberia, and are subject to the
Russians. They are all pagans, and subsist
chiefly by grazing and hunting of sables. They
live in huts, which they take down and remove
with them from place to place. These huts are
composed of wooden poles, covered all over with
hair and rubbish, except a hole left at the top to
let out the smoke. Their fire is made in the mid-
dle, and they all sit round it upon turfs. Both
sexes are very strong, and broad faced, and they
all ride on horseback, not excepting the girls.
Both men and woman dress alike in a sort of
frock, with boots of skins on their legs, and their
common drink is water.
Tonna, a town of Germany, in Saxe-Gotha,
6 m. N. of Gotha.
Tommy Boutonne, a town of France, depart-
ment of Lower Charente, on the river Boutonne,
17 m. N. of Saintes.
Tonnay Charente, a town in the department of
Lower Charente, with a' castle ; seated on the
Charente, 3 m. E. of Rochefort and 15 N. W. of
Tonneins, a town in the department of Lot-et-
Garonne seated on the Garonne, 7 m. E. of
Tonnerre, a town in the department of Yonne
famous for its good wines. It is seated on the
Armancon, 27 m. S. of Troyes and 102 E. of Paris.
Tonnewanto,a small river of New York flowing
into Niagara river opposite Grand Isle.
Tonningen, a sea-port of Denmark, in the duchy
of Sleswick. The harbour is commodious and
defended by three batteries. It is seated on a
peninsula formed by the river Eyder, 25 m. W.
S. W. of Sleswick and 70 N. N. W. of Ham-
burg. Long. 9. 10. E., lat. 51. 30. N.
Tonquin, a countr;* of Asia, bounded on the N
by China, E. by China and the gulf of Tonquin
S. by Cochin-China, and W. by Laos. It is 1209
miles in length and 500 in breadth, and or.e of
the finest countries of the E. for population,
riches, and trade. It contains about 18,000,000
of inhabitants. The commodities are gold, musk,
silks, calicoes, drugs of many sorts, woods for
dyeing, lackered and earthen wares, salt, aniseed,
and worm-seed. The lackered ware is not infe-
rior to that of Japan, which is accounted the best
in the world. The natives in general are of a
middling stature, and clean limbed, with a tawiny
complexion; their faces oval and flattish ; and
their hair black, long, and coarse, hanging down
their shoulders. They aye their teeth black.
They are dexterous, active, and ingenious in me-
chanic arts. Their garments are made either of
silk or cotton; but the poor people and soldiers
wear only cotton of a dark tawny colour. Their
houses are smail and low, and the walls either of
mud, or hurdles daubed over with clay. They
have only a ground-floor, with two or three par-
titions, and each room has a square hole to let in
the light. They have stools, benches, and chairs ;
and on the side of a table in every house is a lit-
tle altar, on which are two incense pots. The
country abounds with villages, which consist of
30 or 40 houses, surrounded by trees; and in
some places are banks to keep the water from
overflowing their gardens, where they have
oranges,betels,pumpkins, melons, and salad herbs.
In the rainy season they cannot pass from one
house to another without wading through the
water, but sometimes they have boats. The Ton-
quinese in general are courteous to strangers;
but the great men are haughty and ambitious,
the soldiers insolent, and the poor thievish. They
buy all their wives, of which the great men have
several. The men are so addicted to gaming,
that, when every thing else is lost, they will
stake their wives and children ; and in hard times
they will sell them to buy rice for themselves.
When a man dies, he is buried in his own ground,
and, if he was a master of a family, they make a
great feast. The first new moon that happens
after the middle of January is a great festival,
when they rejoice for 10 days together; and they
have another great feast in May or June, when
their first harvest is got in. Their religion is
paganism, but they own a Supreme Being. Their
principal idols have human shapes ; but they
have likewise some resembling elephants and
horses, placed in small low temples built of tim-
ber. The language is very guttural, and some of
the words are pronounced through the teeth : if
has a great resemblance to the Chinese. Ton-
quin became an independent kingdom in 1368,
but it has been entirely subdued by Cochin-China,
so that, with Cambodia, and all the cotxitries be
tween Siam and China, it is now united under
one empire. Cachao is the capital.
Tonsberg, a sea-port of Norway, in the province