Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 738
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TUR    738    TUR

two small temples of curious workmanship.
34 m. S. of Sera and 50 N. of Seringapatam.

Turkestan, a country of Western Tartary, boun-
ded on the N. and E. by the country of the Kal-
mucs, S. by Bokharia, and W. by the lake Aral.
The chief of this country is generally called the
khan .of the Karakalpahs. The capital is Taraz.

Turkey, a large empire, extending over part of
Europe, Asia, and Africa, European Turkey for-
merly comprehended Moldavia, Bessarbia, Wal-
achia, Bulgaria, Servia, Bosnia, part of Croatia
and Dalmatia, Romania, Macedonia, Albania,
Janna, Livadia, and the Morea. Bessarabia and
part of Moldavia were, however, ceded to Russia
in 1812, and in 1830, the independence of Greece
being established by the allied powers, the terri-
tory of the sultan in Europe became greatly con-
tracted. See
Greece. Asiatic Turkey is bound-
ed on the N. by the Black Sea and Circassia, E.
by Persia, S. by Arabia, and W. by the Mediter-
ranean and the Sea of Marmora. It lies between
27. and 4G. E. long., and 28. and 45. N. lat., and
contains the countries of Irac-Arabi, Diarbek,
Curdistan, Armenia, Caramania, Natolia, and Sy-
ria, with Palestine. In Africa the Turks have
Egypt., part of Nubia, and Barca ; and the states
of Tripoli and Tunis are under their protection.
Of these countries (which see respectively) the
climate, productions, manners, &c., must be vari
ous. The Turks are generally robust, well-shap

ed. and of a good mien. They shave their heads
but wear long beards, except those in the seraglio,
or palace, and military men, who wear only
. whiskers. The turban worn by the men is white,
and consists of long pieces of thin linen made up
together in several folds. No one but a Turk
must presume to wear a white turban. Their
clothes are long and full. They sit, eat, and
sieep on the floor, on cushions, matrasses, and
carpets. In general they are very moderate in
eating, and their meals are despatched with
great haste. Their principal food is rice ; and
the frugal repast is followed by fruit and cold wa-
ter, which are succeeded by hot coffe4f and pipes
with tobacco. With opium they procure what
they call a
kief, or placid intoxication. Chess
and draughts are favorite games ; and the coffee-
houses and baths furnish other sources of amuse-
ment. Polygamy is allowed among them; but
their wives, properly so called, are no more than
four in number. The fair sex here are kept un-
der a rigorous confinement; the Arabic word
Haram, which signifies a sacred or prohibited
thing, is in its fullest sense used both of the hab-
itation of the women and of the women them-
selves. The Turks believe in one God, and that
his great prophet is Mahomet; they appropriate
to themselves the name of Moslemim, which has
been corrupted into Mussulman, signifying per-
sons professing the doctrine of Mahomet, which
he calls Islam. Drinking wine is prohibited by
this prophet in the Koran, yet the Turks make
use of it occasionally, without any scruple;
though instead of it they generally use sherbet,
a liquor made of honey, spices and the juice of
fruits. They expend great sums on fountains
not only in the towns, but in the country, and
other solitary places, for the refreshment of trav
ellers and labourers. The grand signior is abso-
lute master of the goods and lives of his subjects,
insomuch that they are little better than slaves.
The grand vizier is the chief officer under the
grand signior; besides discharging the functions
of prime minister, he is commander of all the for
ces of the empire. The divan or cabinet council.
consists of the vizier, the mufti, and the kioga
bey. The other ministers are, the reis eftendi
(whose office corresponds in part to that of chan-
cellor, and in part to that of secretary for foreign
affairs in Britain); the tefterdar, or minister of
finance ; the tschelebi, or master of the ordnance ;
the terrceena emini, or minister of marine ;’and
the tschiaus baccha, or secretary of state. The
pachas or governors of provinces act also as farm-
ers general of the revenue for their respective
provinces. The sangiac beys are the governors
of districts under the pachas, and invested, like
them, with both civil and military functions. The
ulema are a numerous body, whose functions con-
sist in explaining the koran and in applying its
injunctions to the circumstances of the times
They thus combine the character of clergy and
lawyers, having at their head the grand mufti
The imans, or priests, are a body altogether dis-
tinct from the ulema, their duty being merely to
perform public worshijftin the mosques.

The public revenue of Turkey is derived
partly from a capitation tax on Christians and
Jews, partly from duties on tobacco and oth-
er articles of consumption. The amount of the
whole is said to be less than 30,000,000 dollars.
The army, which is composed of a variety of
troops, seldom amounts to 100,000 men, and the
navy is inconsiderable. The foreign commerce of
Turkey is inconsiderable. The chief. Turkish
sea-ports in the Levant are Constantinople and
Smyrna. There is little trade with the former.
Smyrna has commerce with Europe and America
in the exportation of fruit, particularly figs,which
grow to great perfection in this part of the country.

Turkey, a township of Essex Co. N. J. 14 m.
N. W. Elizabethtown.

Turkin, a town of Russia, in the government of
Caucasia, situate on the Caspian Sea, 140 ni. S
of Astracan. Long. 47. 15. E., lat. 44. 15. N.

Turn-again, Cape, a cape on the E. side of the
northern island of New Zealand. Long. 176 56
E., lat. 40. 28 S.

Turnau, a town of Bohemia, in the circle of
Buntzlau, on the river Iser, 12 m. N. N. E.
Jung Buntzlau.

Turner, ph. Oxford Co. Me. 18 m. E. Paris
Pop. 2,218.

Turnersville, p.v. Robertson Co. Ten.

Tumhout, a town of the Netherlands, in Bra-
bant, near which, in 1596, prince Maurice of Nas-
sau, with only 800 horse, totally defeated the
Spaniards, consisting of 6,000. 24 m. N. E


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