Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 809
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producing a sweet and soft-shelled

Chints, a fine printed calico first man-
ufactured in the E. Indies, but imitated
in other countries.

Chocolate, a kind of paste, or cake,
prepared chiefly from the cacao-nut, a
production of the W. Indies and S.

Chronometer, a timepiece of a peculiar
construction, at present much used by
navigators in determining the longitude
at sea.

Cider, a liquor extracted from the
Juice of apples, and forming a consider-
able portion of agricultural produce in
this country.

Cimolia, the name of the earth of
which tobacco-pipes are made. It is
round in different pans of England.

Cinnamon, tbe under bark of the
branches of a tree ofthe bay tribe, which
is chiefly found in the island of Ceylon,
but which grows in Malabar and other
parts of the E. Indies.

Citron, an agreeable fruit resembling
a lemon in color, taste and smell. It
comes to us preserved or candied from

Civet, a perfume taken from the civet-

Clove, the unexpanded flower-bud of
an East Indian tree, somewhat resem-
bling the laurel in its height, and in the
shape of its leaves.

Coal, a combustible substance com-
posed chiefly of carbon and bitumen.
That which contains much bitumen is
highly inflammable, and burns with a
1 right flame: the
anthracite, in which
the carbon predominates bums less
vividly. Numerous varieties of coal
exist: it abounds in almost every coun-
try, and inexhaustible mines are found
in different parts of the U. States.

Cohalt, a metal found in the form of
an ore, in Saxony, Sweden, and some
parts of England.

Cochineal, a drug, in many respects
approaching to the nature of
kermes. It
s brought to us from Mexico, where it
is collected in immense quantities, be-
ing a species of insect which affords a
deep crimson dye. Cochineal is also
raised in Peru and several other parts
of Spanish America, and becomes every
year an article of greater importance to
the commerce of that country.

Cocoa-Nut, a woody fruit, of an oval
shape, covered with a fibrous husk, and
lined internally with a white, firm and
fleshy kernel. It is a native of Africa,
the E. and W. Indies, and S. America.

Cod, a well known fish that is caught
in immense quantities on the banks of
Newfoundland, and the other sand-
banks that lie off the coasts of Cape Bre-
ton, Nova Scotia, and N. England.

Coffee, the berries of a shrub common
in Arabia Felix. The best coffee is im-
ported from Mocha in the Red Sea.
That next in esteem is raised in Java
and the E. Indies; and that of lowest
price is raised in the W. Indies and

Copal, a substance of great import-
ance as a varnish, obtained from the
rhjts copalinum, a tree in N. America,
Copper, a metal, next to iron in spe-
cific gravity, but lighter than gold, sil-
ver or lead. It is found in N. and S.
America, in most European countries,
and in Africa and Japan.

Copperas, a name given to the sul-
phate of green vitriol, used in dying

Coral, a marine zoophyte that be-
comes after removal from the water as
hard as a stone, and of a fine red color.
It is found in the Mediterranean and in
the Ethiopic Ocean, about Cape Ne-

Cordage, a term used in general for
all sorts of cord, made use of in rigging

pork, the bark of a species of oak

**ich grows in Spain, Portugal and on
the French side of the Pyrenean moun-














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Cornelian, a precious stone of which
there are three kinds, red, yellow and
white. The finest cornelians are thos.e
of the E. Indies; but very beautiful
ones are found in many parts of Eu-

Cotton, a soft downy substance found
on the gossypium or cotton-tree. It is
separated from the seeds of the plant by
a mill, and then spun and prepared for
all sorts of fine work, as stockings,
quilts, &c. Cotton was found indigen-
ous in America. North and S. Ameri-
ca, Egypt and India produce most of
the cotton consurped, and the greater
part is manufactured in England and
the U. States. The cotton-gin is a ma-
chine invented by Mr. Whitney, an
American, for the purpose of cleansing

Crape, a light, transparent stuff, like
gauze, made of raw silk, gummed and
twisted on the mill, and woven with-
out crossing. It is manufactured in
France and various parts of G. Britain.

Cream of Tartar, a combination of
tartaric acid with potash. It. comes to
us from Leghorn, and other parts of

Crystal, the name of a very large class
of fossils, hard, pellucid, and naturally

Currants, a smaller kind of grapes,
brought principally from Zante and

Curcuma, a plant which i3 native of
India. The root communicates a beau-
tiful but perishable yellow dye, with

Cypress, the cypress tree is a dark
colored evergreen, which grows abun-
dantly in the western parts of the U.
States. The name of this tree is de-
rived from the island of Cyprus, in the
Mediterranean, where it still grows in
great luxuriance.

DAMASK, an ingeniously manufac-
tured stuff, the ground of which is
bright and glossy, with vines, flowers,
and figures interwoven. It is made in
France and other countries of Europe ;
and is also brought from India and Chi-

Dates, the fruit of the date palm, a
tree inhabiting the north of Africa, and
which is al*i cultivated in Italy and
Spain. This fruit is an oval, soft, fleshy
drupe, having a very hard stone, with a
longitudinal furrow on one side, and
when fresh, possesses a delicious per-
fume and taste.

Diamond, a precious stone which has
been known from the remotest ages,
it is the hardest of all bodies; the best
tempered steel makes no impression on
it. The
first water in diamonds means
the greatest purity and perfection of
their complexion, which ought to be
that of the purest water. Diamond-
mines are found chiefly in the E. Indies;
and in Brazil, in S. America.

Diaper, a sort of fine flowered linen
commonly used in table-cloths, nap-
kins, &c.

Dimity, a species of cross-barred stuff
entirely composed of cotton, similar in
fabric to fustian.

Dock, in maritime affairs, is an artifi-
cial basin, by the side of a harbor, made
convenient either for the building or
repairing of ships. It is of two sorts:

1. Dry dock, where the water is kept
out by great flood-gates, till the ship is
built or repaired, when the gates are
opened, and the water let in to float
and launch her. 2.
Wet docks, a place
into which the ship may be hauled, out
of the tide’s way, and so dock herself,
or sink for herself a place to lie in

Down, the fine feathers from the
breasts of several birds, particularly
that of the duck kind. That of the
eider duck is the most valuable.

Drab, a sort of thick woollen eloth,
woven purposely for great coats.

Dragon’s Blood, a gummy resinous
substance, which is brought from the E
Indies. A soution of dragon’s blood
in spirit ol wine is used
for stainin
marble, to which it gives u *.,d tinge.

Drawback, in commerce, an allow
ance made to merchants on the reex
portation of certain goods, which in
some cases consists of the whole, in
others of a part, of the duties which ha
been paid upon the importation.

Drug, in a commercial sense, is ap
plied to every article of a medicinal na
ture, such as guins, jalap, senna, &c.

Duck, a sort of strong brown cloth
used chiefly by sail-makers. The bes'
comes from Russia.

EBONY WOOD, is brought from the
Indies, exceedingly hard, and heavy,
susceptible of a very fine polish. The
best is a jet black, free of veins an
rind, very massive, astringent, and
an acrid, pungent taste.

Embargo, an arrest on ships or met
chandise, by public authority.

Emerald, one of the most beautiful of
all the class of colored gems; when
perfect its color is a pure green. Em-
eralds are found in the E. Indies and
in many parts of America ; they are also
met with in Silesia, Bohemia and other
parts of Europe.

Emery, in natural history, a rich iron-
ore found in large masses, fextremely
hard and very heavy. It is imported
from the island of Naxos, where it ex-
ists in great abundance, and is also
found in many parts of Europe.

Ermine, a valuable fur which is ob-
tained from a species of weasel, abound-
ing in all the cold countries, especially
Russia, Norway and Lapland. The fur
is short, soft, and silky, and is in great
request. The common weasel of the
United States is white in winter, and is
the proper ermine of Europe.

Ether, a very volatile fluid produced
by the distillation of alcohol with an

FEATHERS, make a considerable
article of commerce, being principally
used for plumes, ornaments, filling of
beds, writing-pens, &c. Eider down is
imported from Denmark; the ducks
that supply it being inhabitants of Hud-
son’s Bay, Greenland, Iceland, Nor-
way and N. America.

Felucca, a little vessel with oars, fre-
quent in the Mediterranean.

Figs, the best are those which come
from Turkey, packed in cases. Many
are brought from Faro of a small and
inferior kind, also from the south of
France. Vast quantities are exported
from Spain and Portugal.

Flannel, a kind of slight, loose, wool-
len stuff, composed of a woof and warp,
and woven on a loom with two treadles,
after the manner of baize. The flan-
nels of England and of Wales are most

Flax, a plant which Is cultivated prin-
cipally for the fibres yielded by the
bark, of which linen cloth is made.
Th xe2x96xa0 seeds yield an oil well known in
commerce, under the name of linseed
oil. Flax is now extensively cultivated
in the tf. States, and its various pro-
ducts have become with us important
articles of commerce.

Flour, the meal of wheat-eorn, finely
ground and sifted.

Fossil, in chemistry, denotes, in gen-
eral, all things dug out of the earth, ei-
ther native or extraneous.

Fox-Skins, an article of considerable
export from N. America, employed in
the making of muffs, tippets, &c.

Fhiller’s Earth, a species of clay, of a
grayish ash-colored brown, in all de-
grees from very pale to almost black,
and it has generally something of a
greenish cast. It is used by fullers to
take grease out of their eloth before they
apply the soap.

Fur, the skins of quadrupeds, which
are dressed with alum without de.priv

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