ing them of their hair; the skins chiefly
used are tnose of the sable, ermine, bear,
beaver, hare, &c. They are principally
exported from N. America and Kussia.
Fustian, a kind of cotton stuff, which
seems as if it was waled or ribbed on
one side ; the principal manufacture of
this article is carried on at Manchester
in England, and its neighborhood.
Fustic, a yellow wood, used in dying,
principally brought from tiie islands of
Barbadoes, Tobago, &c. The color it
yields is a fine golden yellow.
GALAJVGAL, a root which is brought
from China It is an excellent stom-
Oalbanum, a gum issuing from the
stem of an umbelliferous plant, growing
in Persia and many parts of Africa.
Oaleo-n, a sort of ship employed in
Spain, in the commerce of the W. In-
Galloon, a narrow, thick kind of fer-
ret or lace, used to edge or border
clothes, sometimes made of wool or
thread, and at others of gold or silver,
but commonly of inohair or silk.
Galls, are tumors, produced by the
punctures of insects on several species
ofthe pak tree. Otiier trees are liable
to the same accidents, and produce galls
of various forms and sizes, but those of
the oak only are used in medicine, and
for the purposes of dying and making
ink. Tiie galls which come from Alep-
po are the most valuable.
Gamboge, a gum-resin, of a deep yel-
low or orange color, brought chiefly
from Cambodia in the E. Indies.
Garnet, a very beautiful gem of a red
color, with an admixture of blue.
Gas, among chemists, a term made
use of to denote all the aerial and per-
manently elastic fluids, except the at-
Gauze, a very slight, thin, open kind
of stuff, made of silk, sometimes of
thread , there are also figured gauzes,
and some with gold or silver flowers on
a silk ground ; the latter come to us
principally from China.
Genera, or Gin, an ordinary malt spirit,
distilled a second time, witli the addi-
tion of Juniper berries. Holland is noted
for distilling the finest Geneva.
Gentian, a plant of the mountainous
parts of Germany, the roots of which
are used in medicine.
Ginger, a knotty, flattish root, of a
fibrous substance and of a pale or yel-
lowish color. It grows in moist places
In various parts of tropical Asia and the
E. Indies, and has been cultivated to
some extent in the W. Indies, particu-
larly in Jamaica.
Ginseng, a plant, the root of which
has long been celebrated among the
Chinese, entering into the composition
of almost every medicine used by the
higher classes. It was formerly sup-
posed to grow exclusively in Chinese
Tartary; but it has now been long
known that this plant is also a native of
N America, in the vicinity of the Alle-
Glass, a transparent, brittle, factitious
body, produced by the action of fire upon
a fixed salt and sand, or sione, that
readily melts. It is manufactured in
almost every country.
Gold, a metal of a yellow color, in
specific gravity next to platina, possess-
ing great lustre, malleability, and duc-
tility. Europe is mostly supplied with
gold from Chili and Peru in S. America;
though a small quantity is likewise im-
ported from China and the coast of Af-
rica. In the U. States, gold mines
abound in Virginia, N. Carolina, Geor-
gxc2xbb, and other southern states, and have
been worked to a considerable extent.
Ooltsehut, a sort of money, or rather a
smaf ingct of gold which comes from
Grain, signifies the fruit or seed grow-
ing in a spike or ear, in which sense it
comprehends every species of corn, as
wheat, rye, barley, oats, &c.
Grampus, a fish of the whale kind.
Grapes, a well known fruit produced
from the vine. It is of various colors
when ripe, but the principal are the
green and purple. We import vast quan-
tities of green grapes from Malaga and
other parts of Spain.
Guaiacum, a medicinal wood, extreme-
ly hard and solid, of a dense, compact
texture and a yellowish color. The
bark is also used in medicine; and there
is a substance sold under the name of
gum guaiacum, which is used for a sim-
ilar purpose. We obtain guaiacum prin-
cipally from the W. Indies and S. Ame-
Gum Arabic, a substance which ex-
udes from the Egyptian acacia, and is
brought chiefly from the Levant.
Gum Elastic, or Caoutchouc. This
substance, usually termed India rubber,
is prepared from the juice of a tree grow-
ing in Cayenne, and other parts of S.
Gunpowder, a composition of nitre,
sulphur, and charcoal, mixed together
Gypsum, or Plaster-Stone, native sul-
phate of lime. It is found in different
parts of Europe and America.
HARTSHORN, the entire horns of
the male deer as separated from the
head. The chemical analysis of harts-
horn yields a water highly impregnated
with a volatile salt, which is called
spirit of hartshorn.
Hellebore, a genus of plants allied to
and resembling the ranunculus. There
are ten species. By distillation a poi-
sonous oil may be obtained from the
Hemp, a plant which grows wild in
the E. Indies and some parts of Ameri-
ca, and is valuable for the various uses
of its seed and the fibres of its bark ;
xe2x80x94the latter being made into cordage,
ropes, cables and cloth of every quality.
Though cultivated to some extent in the
U. States, it still forms a large article of
import from Europe, and particularly
Hides, the skins of beasts ; particu-
larly applied to those of large cattle, as
bullocks, cows, &c. Those from S
America are in best repute.
Hook, a German wine of exquisite fla-
vor when old. The best comes from
Frankfort on the Maine.
Haps, a plant which is a native of Eu-
rope, Siberia, and N. America. It is
used principally in the manufacture of
beer, and is raised extensively both in
England and the U. States.
Horehound, a labiate plant, with whit-
ish, cottony leaves and stem, now na-
turalized in the U. States, and growing
on the banks of ponds, &c. Its juice
imparts a permanent dye to wool, silk
and linen, and is of use in pulmonary
Hungary Water, so called from a
queen of Hungary, is made by distil-
ling in balneo, fre3h-gathered flowers of
rosemary, two pounds, rectified spirits
of wine, two quarts.
Hyacinth, a pellucid gem of a red co-
lor with a mixture of yellow.
Hydromel, a fermented liquor, made
of honey and water.
Hydrometer, an instrument used for
determining the specific gravities of
ICELAND MOSS, a species of lichen
growing in the arctic regions of Europe,
and aiso abundant in the Alpine region
of the White mountains of N. Hamp-
shire. It is an article of commerce, and
often employed in pharmacy, in the
composition of pectoral lozenges, svruos
Indigo, a dye prepared from the leav*.
and small branches of the Indigofer.
tinctaria. Jt is cultivated in N. and S
America and botli the Indies. A bas-
tard sort of indigo may be obtained from
the isatis tincteria or woad.
Ingot, a mass of gold or silver from
the mines, melted and cast into a sort
of mould, but neither coined nor
Iodine, a substance which may be ob-
tained from a variety of sea-weeds and
fungi, and in great abuncance from kelp
It is a deadly poison.
Ipecacuanha, a drug brought from S
America, and much used in medicine.
Iridium, a metal discovered in the ore
of platina, by M. Tennant. It is of a
white color, brittle, and difficult of fu-
Iron, the most valuable of all metals.
It is common to all parts of the United
States and most of the countries of the
globe. We import much iron from Eng-
land and Sweden.
Iron Wood, a species of wood of a red-
dish cast, so called on account of its
corroding as that metal does, and its
being remarkably hard .and ponderous.
The tree which produces it grows prin-
cipally in the W. Indies, S. America
and some parts of Asia.
Isinglass, a gelatinous substance made
from certain fish found in the Danube,
and the rivers of Muscovy. It is brought
chiefly from Russia.
Ivory, the substance of the tusk of the
elephant. It is usually brought from
the coasts of Africa. The ivory of In-
dia is apt to lose its color, and turn yel-
low ; that of Achem and Ceylon is the
JADE, a species of Jasper.
, Jalap, a root so called from being
principally brought from the environs
of Xalapa. It is much employed in me-
Japanning, the art of varnishing and
painting ornaments on wood, metals,
&c., in the same manner as is done by
the natives of Japan.
Jasper, a stone found in the E. Indies
and China, and an ingredient in the
composition of many mountains. Itoc
curs usually in large amorphous masses,
and its colors are various. It is used in
the formation of seals, and when pol-
ished is very beautiful.
Jaztl, a precious stone of a fine blue
color, found in the E. Indies.
Jet, a black, inflammable, bituminous
substance, susceptible of a good polish,
and becoming electrical by rubbing. It
occurs in different parts of Europe, and
is found at South Iladley, Mass., in the
Jujubes, the fruit of a tree which
grows in Languedoc, Provence, the is-
lands of Hieres, in several parts of Ita-
ly, and in India and Persia. It is chief-
ly used in medicine, nearly for the same
purposes as the common fig: a paste ia
prepared from it, which is of efficacy in
KALI, a genus of marine plants,
which are burnt to procure alkali.
Keel, the lowest piece of timber in a
ship, running her whole length, from
the lower part of her stem to the lower
part of her stern-post.
Kelp, the calcined ashes of a plant
called by the same name. The prepa-
ration of kelp is carried on to a great
extent in Scotland and Ireland.
Kermes, an insect of the genus called,
in natural history, coccus. It is prin-
cipally used in dying, on account of its
imparting a fine scarlet or crimson color.
It is found in abundance in France and
Spain, and large quantities are brought
from the Levant.
Kersey, a species of coarse woollen
stuff, usually woven in ribs.