Hayward’s New England Gazetteer (1839) page 411
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The land' in Springfield is gen-
erally rich, with a deep soil suita-
ble for grass or tillage ; bn the riv-
ers are extensive intervales, form-
ing some of the mo?t beautiful farms
in the state. The principal agri-
cultural products, are corn, rye,
oats, beef, pork, butter, cheese; and
wool, of which 17,872 fleeces were
shorn in 1837. Many horses are
raised in this town and sent to mar-

The principal village'is situated
on Black River falls, near the
centre of the town. These falls
are about four miles from the con-
fluence of Black river with the
Connecticut; their descent is rapid
over a rocky, bed, about 60 rods,
when the waters are contracted,
and precipitated 50 or 60 feet down
an abrupt ledge into a narrow chan-
nel. This ravine extends about 12
rods; it is 60 or 70 feet deep, and is
walled by perpendicular ledges of
mica slate. Over this ravine has
been erected ^bridge, from which
may be had a full view of the falls.
A mist constantly arises, in which
may be seen, in a fair day, all the
colors of the rainbow.

. There are in Springfield 1 cotton
and 2 woolen mills, a sand paper
factory, on ,an extensive scale,
which produces an excellent arti-
cle, and manufactures of machine
cards, machinery, iron ware, lead
pipe, hats, chairs, tin and copper
wares, scythes, leather, cabinet fur-
niture, and various other articles.
This is a very flourishing town,
and tbe scenery around its neat and
handsome village is delightful.

Springfield, Mass.

Chief town, Hampden co. This
is one of the most beautiful and
important inland towns in New
England. It is situated on the east
bank of Connecticut river, and is
supplied with a good hydraulic
power by Chickopee and Mill riv-
ers. It is 87 miles W. by S. from
Boston, 17 S. by E. from North-
ampton, and 27 N. from Hartford,
Ct. Its Indian name was
First settled, 1635. Incorporated,
1645. Population, 1820, 3,914;
1830, 6,784 ; 1S37, 9,234. Along
the. banks of the Connecticut are
large tracts of fine alluvial meadow,
which are very productive. Back
from the river the" land rises by a
gentle acclivity to an extended pine

The village and business part if
the town, is cm a street between 2
and, 3'miles in length, running par-
allel with the river. This village
is very pleasant, well built, and
contains, many beautiful buildings.
A handsome bridge, 1,234 feet in
length,. connects this town with
West Springfield. Boats for the
transportation of passengers, and
for towing freight boats, are con-
tinually plying, between this place
and Hartford, during the season of
navigation. The rail road from
Boston to Albany will pass through
Springfield, which, with the great
natural advantagesitpossesses, must
render it one of the most important
commercial depots on Connecticut

About 4 miles north of the prin-
cipal village, near the confluence
of Chickopee river with the Con-
necticut, stands the neat and en-
terprising village of
one of the most beautifully located
manufacturing villages in New

The United States Arsenal is
delightfully situated on an elevated
plain about half a mile east of the
principal village. The buildings
are arranged with great taste and
judgment, around a-level square of
20 acres, and make a fine appear-
ance. The buildings are all of
brick; on one of which is a
cupola, from which ’an extensive
and delightful view of Connecticut
river and the surrounding coun-
try is presented. The water work's
are situated ou Mill river, about a
mile south of the arsenal. This


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