Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 34

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the gold region, especially, they assert no title. They are, for the most part, a roaming,
wretched race, divided into insignificant hordes, subsisting on wild fruits, berries, roots, &c.,
and too indolent to hunt for game in a legitimate way; but not too much so to pursue and
steal the cattle and horses of the whites, which they use for food. There are, probably, no
bodies of Indians in the United States who are more dishonest, perfidious, and cruel; nor any
that are not superior in moral and intellectual character.

Population. — So rapidly has the population of California accumulated since the first dis-
covery of a gold “ placer," in February, 1848, and so constantly does the stream of immigration
flow on and expand, that the ratio of increase, at definite periods, cannot be ascertained with
any great degree of accuracy. A comparison of the number of residents in certain localities,
at the time of the occupation of Monterey by the United States forces, (July, 1846,) with the
estimated number in January, 1851, — a space of four and a half years, — may give soma idea
of the force and velocity of that great “ tide in the affairs of men," which is setting towards
this point from all quarters of the world. At the former date, there were but eight towns, or
pueblos, within the present confines of the state, viz., San Diego, with 500 inhabitants ; Pueblo
de los Angelos, with 2500 ; Santa Barbara, 800 ; Monterey, 1200; Santa Cruz, 400 ; Pueblo
de San Jose, 1000; Yerba Buena, (now San Francisco,) 400; Sonoma, 200; making a total
of 7000. The rest of the territory contained some 7000 or 8000 besides. At the latter
date, it was estimated that the residents in California, permanent and temporary, num-
bered not far from 200,000, one third of whom are engaged in mining.* There are towns,
which, at the close of their first year's existence, contained from 1200 to 1500 voters. In
October, 1850, the monthly mail from the United States conveyed nearly 50,000 letters to
California; and there were 22,000 advertised letters in the post-office of Sacramento city,
then a place of less than three years' growth.

There are some twenty post towns in the state. In January, 1851, thirteen newspapers
(many of them daily) were published, as follows: 6 in San Francisco, 2 in Sacramento
city, 2 at Stockton, and 1 each at Monterey, Sonoma, and Maryville.

Religion. — There are religious societies of almost every Christian denomination, and
increasing attention is given to the support of public worship. No one sect appears to pre-
dominate, and the utmost toleration prevails. In the present fluctuating, unsettled, and
bustling state of things, there must be, of course, many changes in the affairs, and in the rela-
tive numbers, of different communities and associations ; so that an attempt to furnish correct
statistical details in the premises must, at this time, be attended with much difficulty.

* The following estimate, made in April, 1851, is from a public journal printed at Sacramento : In
the northern mines, or that scope of country lying north of San Francisco and Feather River, the
population is computed at 20,000; the Yuba, 40,000; Bear River, 4000; the American Fork, 50,000;
in the southern mines, or that portion lying south of the American River, 80,000; Sacramento and San
Joaquin valleys and neighborhood, 65,000; the coast south of San Francisco, 20,000; — making an
aggregate of 314,000. It is further estimated that the 100,000 miners have each labored 300 days during
the preceding year, and have produced an average of 3J dollars per diem; which gives a total of

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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