Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 71

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$10,500,000, the interest on which is annually met by means of taxation. Provision has been
made for the gradual reduction of this debt, through the operation of a sinking fund, and other
resources. The nominal liabilities of the state, at the above date, reached nearly $16,000,000;
to meet which it had productive assets valued at about $5,300,000, and unproductive property
estimated at near $15,500,000. The expenditures for the year ending December 1, 1849,
were $1,146,492*16; and the income, from all sources, including the direct tax, amounted to

Surface, Soil, &fc. — The Eastern Shore of Maryland presents, in general, a low and flat
surface, with frequent marshy tracts and stagnant ponds. The soil in this region, though not
remarkably fertile, produces wheat of peculiar whiteness and excellence; also Indian corn,
tobacco, sweet potatoes, and most of the ordinary descriptions of vegetables. The western
section of the state is more elevated And protuberant, gradually rising towards the north-west,
and becoming at that point quite mountainous, being crossed by a part of the Alleghany chain,
reaching from Pennsylvania to Virginia. The land in the valleys between these eminences is
of superior quality ; and that of the entire section, indeed, is highly productive. The soil is com-
posed mostly of a heavy red loam. The staple products are tobacco and wheat; but cotton, hemp,
and flax are also raised in large quantities. Fruits of the finest kinds are abundant, particu-
larly apples, pears, and the choicest varieties of stone fruit. The woodlands contain much
valuable timber, and abound with nut-trees, the fruit of which affords subsistence to multitudes
of swine. There are many tracts which furnish fine pasturage for cattle and sheep; and in
addition to beef, mutton, wool, and the products of the dairy, vast quantities of poultry are
raised in all parts of the state.

Rivers. — The Potomac, forming the boundary between this state and Virginia ; the Susque-
hanna, flowing through Pennsylvania, and emptying into the northerly extremity of Chesapeake
Bay ; the Patapsco, and Patuxent, both navigable, and affording good water power, are among
the principal streams immediately connected with the trade and commerce of Maryland.
There are also several smaller rivers running into the eastern margin of Chesapeake Bay.

Internal Improvements. — Among the most important public works in the country are two
which owe their origin to Maryland, viz., the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and the Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad. They were both commenced in 1828; and by their aid the markets of
the world may be readily supplied with the treasures of the immense coal regions in the west.

A part of the chain of railroads, extending through most of the Atlantic states, crosses Mary-
land, taking Baltimore in its course. Other railroads, of considerable extent, diverge from
Baltimore, Frenchtown, &c. A commodious canal, connecting the Chesapeake and Delaware
Bays, 42 miles in length, was completed in 1829, at a cost of $2,750,000.

Minerals. — Copperas and chrome ores, red and yellow ochres, sulphuret of copper, alum
earth, and porcelain clay are found in considerable quantities, chiefly in the eastern and north-
eastern parts of the state. Iron ore abounds in various localities ; and the bog ore obtained
in the southern quarter of the Eastern Shore is wrought to much advantage. But by far the
most valuable mineral product of Maryland is the bituminous coal, of which there are exhaust-
less beds in the mountainous region near the western border of the state. One tract, in the
vicinity of Cumberland, Alleghany county, is said to comprise an area of 400 square miles,
the veins measuring from 5 to 15 feet in thickness; another, lying west of the Alleghany ridge,
contains beds some 20 feet in depth.

Manufactures. —Wool, cotton, hemp, and iron are manufactured in many parts of the state.
There are also numerous tanneries, chandleries, breweries, distilleries, potteries, paper mills,
powder mills, &c.; and a very large amount of capital is invested in the business of manu-
facturing "wheat flour.

Indians. — There are no organized tribes of the red races now* extant in Maryland.

Population. — During the last sixty years, the average increase of population in this state •
does not seem to have exceeded
one per cent, per annum. Nearly one fifth of the inhabitants
are slaves.

Climate. — The elevated country of the Western Shore is blest with a delightful and

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain image

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