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STATES AND TERRITORIES. —MISSOURI. 89
MISSOURI is one of the Western — or, at present, more properly, one of the Central —
states of the American Union. It formerly composed a part of the extensive tract, which,
under the name of Louisiana, was purchased of France by the United States in the year 1803.
In the following year, that portion of the country which now forms the State of Louisiana was
set off from the residue, and denominated the Territory of Orleans ; the remainder being
styled the District of Louisiana, until 1812, when the name was changed to the Territory of
Missouri. Another division took place about eight years afterwards, and in 1821 the state was
formed out of a section of that territory, and duly admitted into the Union. Some of the
places within the present limits of Missouri were settled as early as the year 1764, by hunters
and traders generally from the north and east. In that year the city of St. Louis was founded,
now the largest commercial place on the Mississippi, excepting New Orleans. St. Charles, on
the Missouri, was established in 1780, and New Madrid on the Mississippi, in 1787.
Boundaries and Extent. — Missouri is bounded north by the State of Iowa; east by the
Mississippi River, which separates it from the States of Illinois, Kentucky, and part of Ten-
nessee ; south by the State of Arkansas ; and west by the Indian Territory, and by the River
Missouri, dividing it from the Deserts of Nebraska. It extends from 36° to 40° 36' north lati-
tude, and lies between 89° and 95° 45' west longitude. Its area is estimated at 67,380 square
miles, being about 278 miles in length by 235 in breadth.
Government. — The governor and lieutenant governor are chosen, by a plurality of the pop-
ular votes, for four years, and are not eligible for two terms in succession. The lieutenant
governor is ex officio president of the Senate. The legislature consists of a Senate, in number
not less than 14 nor more than 33; and a House of Representatives, not to exceed 100 in num-
ber. The former are chosen for four years — one half every second year; and the latter every
second year, in counties, to serve two years. The legislature meets biennially, on the last
Monday in December, and the members receive three dollars per diem for sixty days of the
session, after which their pay is reduced to one dollar — a feature that might be profitably
adopted in other states.
Judiciary. — The Supreme Court, having appellate jurisdiction only, is composed of three
judges, who hold office for twelve years. It holds two sessions annually. There are fourteen
judicial circuits, with a like number of judges, who hold office for eight years. Circuit Courts
are held twice a year in each county. These have exclusive jurisdiction in criminal matters,
with power to correct the proceedings of County Courts and justices of the peace, subject to
appeal to the Supreme Court. The supreme and circuit judges are appointed by the governor