Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 113

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Besides the foregoing, large portions of the following have been completed: the Genesee
Valley Canal, to extend from Rochester, 108£ miles, to Olean, on the Alleghany; and the Black
River, from the Erie at Rome, 35 miles, to the High Falls. The Delaware and Hudson Canal,
from Rondout, Ulster county, 84 miles, to Delaware River, whence it extends 25 miles to
Honesdale, Pa., where it connects with a railroad of 16£ miles to the coal mines at Carbondale,
is the work of a private corporation, though assisted by a state loan, and partly lying in Penn-
sylvania. It was completed at a cost of $1,875,000.

In addition to these artificial watercourses, New York has further provided for her own
prosperity by the establishment of numerous extensive and costly railroads. A series of these
commodious highways, with a large number of branches under divers names, and owned by
various bodies of proprietors, extends from New York to Buffalo. A railroad from the latter
via Niagara Falls, extends to Lewiston, and is there connected with a steamboat line
to Oswego. A branch of this road runs to Lockport. There are also railroads between
Schenectady, Ballston Spa, and Troy. A railroad of 50 miles (24 of which are in Pennsylva-
nia) extends from 'Steuben county to the Blossburg coal mines, Pa. The Hudson and Erie
Railroad, from Newburg and Piermont, on the Hudson, to Dunkirk, on Lake Erie, is between
400 and 500 miles in length, and has numerous extensive branches. There are many others,
either partially completed or in contemplation; so that at some not very remote day the entire
state will be intersected by these important public works.

Minerals. — The mountainous region at the north-east part of the state, south-west of Lake
Champlain, is exceedingly rich in iron ore. This mineral is also abundant in several other
localities, and is extensively wrought into pigs and various castings. In Clinton county, the
ore is of extraordinarily fine quality, great quantities of which, in a manufactured state, are
annually exported. Vast beds of lead ore are found in St. Lawrence county. At Ticon-
deroga, and at some other spots, abundance of excellent plumbago, or black lead, is found, and
forms a valuable article of commerce. Indications of copper have been discovered in a few
places. Salt and gypsum are obtained plentifully in several of the central counties eastward
of Lake Ontario; and the former article is manufactured in such quantities as to supply a
very extensive market; the latter is quarried largely, and sent by canals and railways to dis-
tant markets in all directions. Quarries of excellent marble are being worked in Westchester
county and the region contiguous. Few indications of coal have yet been found. Limestone,
sandstone, and granite are abundant in several parts of the state.

Manufactures. — New York is a large manufacturing as well as agricultural and commer-
cial state. Countless establishments for the transformation of all her natural products into
articles of trade are maintained every where. Millions of capital are invested in woollen and
cotton factories; in the manufacture of salt, iron, and lead; in, the fabrication of articles
of Jpather, straw, glass, clay, marble, &c.; in distilleries, breweries, machine shops, flouring
mills, and other mechanical agencies for the conversion of raw material into shapes fitted for
the use and comfort of man.

Indians. — The numerous aboriginal tribes by which the entire state was formerly overrun
have left comparatively but few living representatives within the state. The causes which
have contributed to their annihilation, or dispersion, are those which have ordinarily produced
the same results in all other parts of the United States. The hostile have been subdued by
superior force ; the friendly have been treated with liberality ; and all who remained at the
close of the American revolution have either been provided with, or allowed to possess them-
selves of, appropriate and comfortable homes elsewhere.

Population. — The population of New York, especially of the metropolis, and of the cities
generally, exhibits more diversity of character, probably arising from their great variety of
origin, than that of any other state of the Union, or, possibly, that of any other country on the
earth. The ancient Dutch and English characteristics, so distinctly marked and preserved
through many successive ages, are no longer discernible, except in sundry secluded local-
ities, or within the circle of certain exclusive neighborhoods. The present generation is com-
posed of new and multiform materials. People who can trace their ancestry to every nation},

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