Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 242

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Francis*-Aroostook, and many other important
tributaries, from Me. It waters a large portion
of its
N. territory, and bears many valuable pro-
ductions of that state to its mouth. “ This river
is 350 miles long. The tide flows up about 80
miles. It is navigable for boats 200 miles, and
for sloops of 50 tons 80 miles. This river and
its branches water a large tract of excellent
country. About 30 miles from its mouth com-
mences a fine level country of rich meadow
lands, well clothed with timber. The river fur-
nishes a great quantity of salmon, bass, and
sturgeon. About a mile above the city of St.
John's is the only entrance into this river. It is
about 80 or 100 yards wide, 400 yards long,
called the falls of the river. It being narrow,-
and a ridge of rocks running across the bottom
of the channel, on which there are not above 17
feet of water, it is not sufficiently spacious to
discharge the fresh waters of the river above.
The common tides here rising above 20 feet, the
waters of the river at low water are about 20 feet
higher than the waters of the sea ; at high water
the waters of the sea are about 5 feet higher than
those of the river; so that at every tide there
are two falls, one outwards and one inwards.
The only time of passing with safety is when the
waters of the river and of the sea are level, which
is twice in a tide, and continues only about 20
minutes each time." By the late treaty between
U. S. and Great Britain, the navigation of
this river is free to both nations.

St. John's River, Fa. This river rises in an
immense marsh, slightly elevated above the level
of the ocean, and flows N., nearly parallel with
the coast, until it turns to the
E., and flows into
the Atlantic. It passes through Lake George in
the upper part of its course, and afterwards re-
ceives the Ocklawaha, a large tributary. Its
entire length is about 250 miles. It often spreads
from 3 to 5 miles in width, though in other
places it is not more than a quarter of a mile
wide. Vessels drawing 8 feet of water enter
Lake George and Dunn's Lake, 150 miles from
its mouth. It is only 1 mile wide at its entrance,
and it has 12 feet of water on the bar. There is a
light-house on the
S. side of the river at its mouth.

St. John's River, Ca. It rises on the E. border
of the state, and flows W. into the Rio Colorado.

St. Joseph's Bay, Fa., is enclosed by Cape St.
Bias, a long, crooked peninsula. The bay is 20
miles long, and from 7 to 8 wide, with a broad
entrance on the
N. W., near Cape False, afford-
ing 17 feet of water on the bar. There is a
channel close to the peninsula, on the S.
E. side
of the entrance, nearly as deep as the
N. W.
passage. The N. E. shore of the bay is inter-
sected by ponds and lagoons. There is a beauti-
ful island, 2 miles from the S.
E. coast, covered
with live oak, cedar, and palm-trees.

St. Joseph's Island, Mn. Situated N. of Lake
Huron, in the Straits. of St. Mary, between
George's Island on the N. W. and Drummond's
Island on the S. E. The S. W. passage, through
which the U. S. boundary passes, is called
Muddy Lake. The length of the island is 20
miles, and its greatest breadth 8 iniles. On its
S. extremity are the remains of an old British

St. Joseph, Lake, Tensas parish, La. A narrow,
semicircular sheet of water, emptying into the

St. Joseph's River, Mn., waters the central part
of Hillsdale co., flows S. W. across a corner of
O. into la., where it joins the St. Mary's at Fort
Wayne, forming Maumee River. It affords ex-
tensive water power.

St. Joseph's River, Mn. This river rises in the
N. E. part of Hillsdale co., flows E., and, after a
S. curve into la., proceeds N. W. to its entrance
into Lake Michigan. It is
250 miles long, fol-
lowing its course, but not more than
150 in a
direct line, being the second river in size in the
state. Its tributaries are numerous, and its wa-
ter power extensive. It is navigable for keel
boats to Lockport,
130 miles. At its mouth is a
good harbor, and, by a pier, is sufficient for any
number of vessels required by the lake naviga-
tion. The bar at its mouth has 6 feet of water.
There is a good deal of wood land on its borders,
and the soil is generally fertile.

St. Lawrence River. This- great river forms
the outlet of the chain of lakes, or inland seas,
lying between the United States and Canada.
It may be considered as descending from Lake
Superior, and passing through Lakes Huron,
Erie, and Ontario, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, a
distance of 2000 miles ; draining an area of over

500,000 square miles in extent. Its course
through the centre of these lakes and below,
until it crosses
45° N. lat., forms the boundary
between the United States and Canada. After
45° lat., the course of this majestic river
is wholly within the territory of Canada. In the
upper part of its course it loses its character as a
river, when passing through the lakes ; and even
when it passes from lake to lake, connecting and
bearing along their waters, it is known by different
names in different sections; as the St. Mary
between Superior and Huron ; the St. Clair and
the Detroit between Huron and Erie, having the
small lake St. Clair in the intermediate course ;
and the Niagara between Erie and Ontario.
From Lake Ontario to Montreal it is sometimes
called the Iroquois, though it is more commonly
known as the St. Lawrence proper, from the
outlet of Lake Ontario to its mouth. Below
Montreal the river varies in breadth from half a
mile to three miles, and it passes through the
Lake St. Peter,
50 miles below Montreal, which
is from
12 to 15 miles wide. Below Quebec the
river increases rapidly in width, until it enters
the gulf by a mouth nearly 100 miles across. Its
average fall is about six inches to the mile, al-
though this is very unequally distributed, on
account of the numerous rapids, and one stupen-
dous cataract in its course. It receives many
tributaries, the most important of which, on the
south side, is the Richelieu, which is the outlet of
Lake Champlain, entering at the head of Lake St.
Peter; and, on the north, the Saguenay,
140 miles
below Quebec; and the Ottawa, or Grand River,
which enters it a little above Montreal. The St.
Lawrence, with the chain of lakes which empty
their waters through its channel into the N. At-
lantic, constitutes one of the great commercial
thoroughfares of the North American continent.
It is navigable for ships of the line
400 miles, to
Quebec, and for ships of
600 tons to Montreal,
and onward through a series of ship canals for
passing the falls and rapids into the lakes. In
addition to the more customary forms of steam-
boats, of ships, and other sea-going vessels, and
of the craft usually employed in the navigation
of large rivers, the waters of the St. Lawrence,
more than any other river, even of this forest

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