Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 273

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Attleboro, Ms., Bristol co. In the N. W.
corner of the county. It possesses a fine water
power. Ten Mile River runs the whole length
of the town, and puts in operation several cotton
mills, and a calico printing establishment. There
are a large number of smaller manufactures,
such as hoots and shoes, combs, carpenter's tools,
clocks, straw bonnets, and jewelry. The Boston
and Providence Railroad passes through it. 30
miles S. S. W. from Boston, and 12 N. from
Providence, R. I.

Auburn, la., c,. h. De Kalb co. 153 miles N. N.
E. from Indianapolis.

Auburn, Me., Cumberland co. Taken from Mi-
not, in 1842. 30 miles N. from Portland. On
the Androscoggin. A flourishing town.

Auburn, Ms., Worcester co. There are a num-
ber of flourishing villages here ; the principal are
Stoneville and Drury Mills, large manufactur-
ing places. French River passes through it:
also the Norwich and Worcester Railroad. 45
miles W. S. W. from Boston, and 5 S. by W.
from Worcester.

' Auburn, N. H., Rockingham co., contains
some fine swells of land. 5 miles E. from
Manchester. Taken from Chester in 1845.

Auburn,Y., c. h. Cayuga co. 173 miles W.
from Albany, and 152 miles E. from Buffalo.
This is one of the most beautiful and thriving
inland towns in the state. It is situated on both
sides of the stream which forms the outlet of the
Owasco Lake, about a mile and a half S. of the
body of the lake. There is a fine hydraulic
power upon the stream where it passes through
the town, which is largely improved for mills
and manufacturing purposes. The entire fall is
about 100 feet, and the amount of water dis-
charged from the lake is large and little afected
by the variations of flood or drought. A large
cotton factory, several flouring mills, saw mills,
sash and blind factories, planing mills, iron
founderies, and other works are carried by this
water power. Auburn is pleasantly laid out,
though jyith less regularity than is commonly
aimed afc.-.in modern towns. The streets ax-e gen-
erally straight, but seldom parallel, and conse-
quently intersecting each other, for the most part
at every variety of acute and obtuse angles.
The principal streets are wide, well paved, or
macadamized, and built up in some sections with
handsome ranges of stoi-es, dwellings, and public
houses, of brick or dressed limestone, some of
them four stories high, which would not dis-
credit the streets of our largest commercial cities.
The state pi'ison located at Auburn has been re-
garded, in its system of discipline, as a model for
such institutions. It is located in the N. W. part
of the village, enclosing a squax-e of 500 feet on
a side, by a stone wall from 16 to 40 feet high.
The buildings form three sides of a square, 276
feet in front, the wings running back 242 feet,
with a width of 45 feet. In the area formed by
the main prison buildings is a grass plot, laid out
with gravel walks. In the x-ear of tlxis is the in-
terior enclosure, occupied by the workshops of
the prisoners, built against the outer wall of the
px-ison yard. The outlet of the Owasco passes
by the S. side of this enclosxxre, and is made to
turn a wheel without the wall, the shaft of which,
passing through, gives motion to the machinery
within. The prisoners labor in the shops by day
under the direction of the overseers, in the presence
of each other, but without any communication, and
at night they go to occupy each his solitary cell.
This system, as distinguished from the old meth-
od of placing sevei'al prisoners in the same apart-
for lodging, with opportunity of unre-
strained intex-course on the one hand, and fx-om
that of solitary confinement in their separate
cells, by day as well as by night, on the other, is
what has obtained the name of the “ Auburn
system of prison discipline," in consequence of
its having been first set in operation here, and
the prison being constxmcted with special ref-
erence to its application. The chief peculiarity
of strxxcture is in the arrangement of the cells.
The cells are in a body, or block, extending
through the centre of each wing of the prison
buildings, l'anged in tiers of four stoi'ies high,
with galleries or stagings passing by the doors.
The space between this block of cells and the
walls of the prison is 10 feet wide from top to
bottom, thus forming, as it were, a prison within
a prison. The cells are 7 feet long, 7 feet high,
and 3<| feet wide, sufficiently lighted while day-
light. continues, and well warmed and ventilated
from the intermediate area. The earnings of the
Auburn prison for the year 1850, were $68,737'31;
the expenditures, $71,166-07. There is usually
a balance in favor of the establishment. The
surplus in 1849 was $10,837-80. This prison was
commenced in 1816. There is at Auburn a The-
ological Seminary, of the Presbyterian Church,
connected with the New School Genei-al Assem-
bly. The buildings are pleasantly situated in the
N. part of the village. The principal edifice is
of stone, composed of a centre building and two
wings, four stoi'ies high, connected by intermedi-
ate sections of three stories above the base-
ments, the whole presenting a front of 200 feet.
Theological Seminaries.) The other public
buildings in Auburn are the court house and
jail, the Auburn Academy, the Auburn Female
Seminary, and churches of the Presbyterian,
Episcopal, Methodist, Baptist, Universalist, and
Roman Catholic denominations. Auburn was set-
tled in 1793. Incorporated as a village in 1815,
and as a town in 1823. Population in 1850, 9548.

Audrain County, Mo., c. h. at Mexico. N. E.
central, in the N. angle between the Mississippi
and Missouri. Watered by the S. fork of Salt
River. Surface level; soil fertile.

Auglaize County, O., c. h. at Wappaukonetta.
In the N. W. part of the state, on the head wa-
ters of the Auglaize River.

Augusta, Io., Des Moines co. A neat and
flourishing village, on the N. side of Skunk River.
A large flouring mill is in operation here.

Augusta, Ga. City, and seat of justice of Rich-
mond co., on the S. W. side of the Savannah
River, 96 miles N. E. from Milledgeville, and
120 miles N. W. from Savannah, with which it
connects by steamboat navigation. This city
is x-egularly laid out and well built. The streets
are wide, and intersect each other at right angles.
Many of them are beautifully shaded with trees.
The city is built chiefly of brick, and many of
the houses are spacious and elegant. The prin-
cipal public buildings are the city hall, market
house, court house, a jail, a theatre, a hospital, a
female asylum, an arsenal, and several handsome
churches. Some of the public buildings are
costly and elegant. Many of the blocks of stores
are large and substantial, and the whole place
has much of the aspect of a large commercial
mart. It has long been a very flourishing place.

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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