Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 350

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are 60 feet wide, generally crossing each other
at right angles. There are several public squares,
the principal of which are the Campus Mar-
tius, in the central part of the city; and the
Grand Circus, in which five of the great ave-
nues meet. The wholesale stores, and the ware-
houses for heavy goods, are mostly located on
Atwater Street on the river, and on Woodbridge
Street, between this and Jefferson Avenue. On
Jefferson Avenue are located the principal dry
goods and fancy stores, with the public and pri-
vate offices. This is truly an elegant street,
compactly built, and imposing in its appear-

Among the public buildings deserving of par-
ticular notice, is the building lately occupied as
the state house, built of brick, having a hand-
some Ionic portico, and a dome
140 feet high.
The view from the top of this building is at
once extensive and beautiful; embracing, with
the entire city, the strait above and below, en-
livened with shipping and steamboats, Lake St.
Clair, and a wide extent of cultivated country
around the city and on the Canada shore. The
City Hall is a neat brick edifice,
100 feet by 50,
which cost $20,000. The lower story is occu-
pied as a irfcirket, and the upper for the city
courts. The Michigan Bank has a costly and
beautiful edifice of polished stone, in the Grecian
style, two stories high above the basement. Sev-
eral of the churches have beautiful buildings,
among which is St. Paul's, Episcopal, in the
Gothic style; the First Presbyterian Church,
with a Grecian portico of six Doric columns ; a
Baptist Church of the Grecian Ionic order; and
St. Ann's Cathedral, of hewn granite,
116 by 60
feet, with two towers in front, and surmounted
by an octagonal dome
30 feet in diameter and
30 feet high.

Among the higher literary institutions of the
city are the Historical Society, founded in
1829 ;
the State Literary Institute, founded in 1838 ;
the State Medical Society; the Young Men's
Society for Moral and Intellectual Improvement,
founded in
1832; a Young Ladies' Seminary;
a Young Ladies' Institute ; the St. Clair Semi-
nary for Young Ladies, (Roman Catholic;) and
several high schools for boys.

Detroit is advantageously located for trade,
and is fast becoming a great commercial em-
porium. The navigation of the river and lake
is open about eight months in the year. The
Michigan Central Railroad now opens a direct
and speedy communication through the most
populous portion of the state to the opposite
side of the peninsula; and thence, by a few
hours' water passage, to Chicago, Milwaukee, and
the far west. Other routes of railroad commu-
nication are in the process of construction.

Though the history of Detroit, as a place of
any considerable population and trade, is recent,
corresponding to that of the whole western coun-
try, yet as a place of military importance it has
had an early antiquity among the towns now
belonging to the United States. It was founded
by the French in
1683. In 1760 it fell into the
hands of the British. In
1784 it became by
treaty a possession of the United States, which
maintained a garrison there from
1796 until with-
in a few years past. It was first incorporated as
a city in 1802. In the war of 1812, Detroit was
captured by the British, and recaptured by the
Americans the next year. In
1815 it received a
new charter of incorporation. The city has twice
been extensively devastated by fire
; first in 1805,
when it was nearly destroyed; and afterwards in
1837, when there was also a great destruction
of property.

De Witt, Io., c. h. Clinton co.

De Witt County, Is., c. h. at Clinton. Cen-
tral part.

De Witt, N. Y., Onondaga co. The surface
of this town is rather uneven, and there is a
cavern within its limits which has been explored
for the distance of 100 rods. In this vicinity also
are immense quarries of water lime, which is
exported in large quantities. 5 miles
E. from
Syracuse, and 142 N. of
W. from Albany.

De Witt County, Ts. S. central. On both sides
of the Guadalupe.

Dexter, Me., Penobscot co. This town was
first settled in 1801. Incorporated 1815. It lies
67 miles N.
E. from Augusta, and 35 N. W. from
Bangor. Dexter is a valuable township of land.
The farmers reap a rich reward for their labors.
In this town is a pond covering 500 acres, at the
outlet of which are mills and a beautiful village.

Dexter, Mn., Washtenaw co. At the mouth
of Mill Creek, which affords extensive water
power. The railroad between Detroit and Chi-
cago passes through it.

Dexter, N. Y., Brownville, Jefferson co. On
the N. side of Black River, at its mouth. It has
extensive hydraulic privileges. The navigation
of Lake Ontario comes up to the place.

Diana, N. Y., Lewis co. The S. part of this
town was setoff in
1841 to form a part of the
town of Croghan. It is watered by the Oswe-
gatchie and Indian Rivers. The surface is hilly;
the soil suitable for grass.
154 miles N. W. from
from Albany, and
25 N. from Martinsburg.

Dickinson, N. Y., Franklin co. This large
town, 40 miles in length, is watered by the head
branches of Racket and St. Regis Rivers, and by
numerous lakes. The soil is various, and the
S. part of the town mostly a wilderness. 15
miles S. W. from Malone, and 154 N. N. W. from

Dickinson, Pa., Cumberland co. Yellow Breeches
Creek waters this town. Surface hilly, affording
iron ore ; soil calcareous loam.

Dickson County, Te., c. h. at Charlotte. Bound-
ed N. by Steward and Montgomery counties,
by Davidson and Williamson, S. by Hickman,
and W. by Humphreys counties. Its surface is
elevated table land, sending its streams
E. into
the Cumberland, and W. into the Tennessee
River. The soil is of tolerably good quality.

Dighton, Ms., Bristol co. Was formerly a part
of Taunton, and lies on the W. side of Taun-
ton River. Sureganset River affords it a good
water power. The noted “ Dighton Rock," on
which are curious inscriptions, lies in the limits
of the town of Berkley, formerly a part of Digh-

Dinwiddie County, Ya. S. E. part. Watered
by the Nottaway and tributaries, and on the N.
by the Appomattox. Surface gently rolling.

Dinwiddie, Ya., c. h. Dinwiddie co. On Stony
37 miles S. by W. from Richmond.

Dix, N. Y., Chemung co. Catharine's Creek
waters the
E. part of this town. The surface is
hilly; soil gravelly loam. 16 miles N. from El-
mira, and 185
S. of W. from Albany.

Dixfield, Me., Oxford co. This is a good farm-
ing town on the N. bank of the Androscoggin

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