Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 366

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somewhat uneven, and the soil light and easily
cultivated, producing good corn and rye. Its
principal streams are the River Lamoille, Brown's
River, Parmelee's and Stone's Brooks, all of
which afford good mill privileges. The great
falls, in the Lamoille, 88 feet in 30 rods, are situ-
ated in the S. E. part of the town. In this town
are 2 pleasant villages. Broadstreet Spafford
and his two sons, Nathan and Asa, came into
this township from Piermont, N. H., in 1783.
They soon after removed their families here. 37
miles N. W. from Montpelier, and 12 S. E. from
St. Albans.

Fairfax County, Va., c. h. at Fairfax. Bound-
ed N.
E. and S. E. by the Potomac River, sepa-
rating it from Maryland,
E. by the District
of Columbia, S. W. by Ocoquan River, separ-
ating it from Prince William co., and N. W.
by Loudon co. The interior is watered by Dif-
ficult Creek, a branch of the Potomac. Surface
rough and hilly; soil mostly of poor quality.

Fairfax, Va., c. h. Fairfax co. 121 miles N.
from Richmond.

Fairfield County, Ct. Fairfield and Danbury
are the shire towns. This county is bounded N.
by Litchfield co., N. E. and E. by Housatonic
River, S. E. and S. by Long Island Sound,
and W. by the state of New York. This is a fine
farming section of country, agreeably diversified
in regard to surface, with a strong fertile soil,
and possesses great natural agricultural resources.
Fairfield co. extends nearly 40 miles on Long
Island Sound, and enjoys great facilities for navi-
gation and the fisheries. The beautiful Housa-
tonic washes its N. E. boundary, and the Sauga-
tuck, Norwalk, Mill, Pequonoc, and other rivers
afford it an ample water power. It contains
many villages of superior beauty, and abounds
in scenery of an interesting character. First set-
tled 1639.

Fairfield, Ct., Fairfield co. This is the shire
town, and comprises three parishes, Fairfield, the
seat of justice, Green's Farms, and Greenfield.
Its Indian name was Unquowa. The surface of
the town is undulating and very pleasant. The
soil is fertile, well cultivated, and productive of
wheat and rye, and a great variety of fruits and
vegetables for New York market. Black Rock
Harbor is safe and easy of entrance for vessels
drawing 19 feet of water at common tides. There
is but little water power in Fairfield, except that
produced by the tide.

In the year 1637, the tract of country which
now forms the town of Fairfield was discovered
by Captain Mason and the troops of Massachu-
setts and Connecticut under his command, when
they pursued the Pequots to the swamp in this
town bearing the name of “Pequot Swamp."
This is the spot made memorable by the great
fight that took place there between those troops
and the Pequots, terminating in the almost en-
tire destruction of that once powerful and warlike
nation of savages. There are no Indian marks
left by which this swamp can be traced as the
place of their extermination, except a mound of
earth in the centre of it, considered as a place of
safety, evidently the effect of art, with a raised
footpath leading from it to the surrounding high
grounds. 21 miles S. W. from New Haven,
on the New Haven and New York Railroad.

Fairfield, N. J., Cumberland co. Watered by
Cohansey, Nantuxet, and Cedar Creeks. Sur-
face level and sandy, with a marshy strip border-
ing on Delaware Bay. 12 miles S. by W. from

Fairfield, N. Y., Herkimer co. Drained by
West Canada Creek. The surface is hilly, and
somewhat rocky; the soil fertile, and well adapt-
ed to grass. 10 miles N. from Herkimer, and 81
N. W. from Albany.

Fairfield, Me., Somerset co. On the W. side of
Kennebec River, watered by a small stream run-
ning into the Kennebec, and by a branch of Wa-
terville River. This is a fertile township of land,
with a pleasant village. 26 miles N. from Augus-
ta, to which the Kennebec is navigable.

Fairfield, 0., Greene co. On a spacious plain
surrounded by hills on the S. E. side of Mad Riv-
er. 57 miles W. by S. from Columbus.

Fairfield, Pa., Westmoreland co. Drained by
streams flowing into Conemaugh River, which
bounds it on the N. E. Surface mostly level;
soil calcareous loam.

Fairfield District, S. C., c. h. at Winnshoro'.
Bounded N. by Chester district, E. by Lancaster
and Kershaw districts, S. by Richland district, and
W. by Broad River, separating it from Lexing-
ton, Newberry, and Union counties. Watered by
Waleree, Little, and Broad Rivers. Soil very

Fairfield, Yt., Franklin co. Black Creek and
Fairfield River cross this township, and afford
good mill privileges. Smithfield Pond, in the
westerly part of the town, is about 3 miles long and
l£ broad. The township was originally covered
with hard wood. The surface is uneven, but very
little of it is so broken as to be unfit for cultiva-
tion. The soil is generally good.* The first set-
tler of this town was Mr. Joseph Wheeler. He
moved into it with his family in March, 1788. 45
miles N. W. from Montpelier, and 27 N. N. E.
from Burlington.

Fairfield County, 0., c. h. at Lancaster, situ-
ated a little S. E. of the centre of the state, on
the height of land between the Muskingum and
Scioto Rivers, having Licking co. on the N.,
Perry on the E., Hocking on the S. E. and S.,
and Pickaway and Franklin on the W. The prin-
cipal streams are the head waters of the Hock-
hocking River, which runs S. E. into the Ohio
The western and northern parts are mostly level,
and the soil highly fertile. The middle and east-
ern portions are more undulating, but still with a
good soil; while the southern becomes hilly and
broken, with a thin soil, composed, in many places,
of sand and gravel. The staple productions of
the county are wheat and the various grains,
potatoes, and tobacco.

Among the physical features of this county is
one which is worthy of notice, consisting of
abrupt, precipitous, and conical ledges of rock,
covered with little or no vegetation, interspersed
in a promiscuous manner in every direction.
One of these, about a mile N. E. from Lancaster,
is very remarkable, rising to the height of about
200 feet. A writer on the geology of the state
says, “ What is properly called the sandstone
formation terminates, near Lancaster, in immense
detached mural precipices, like the remains of
ancient islands. One of these, called Mount
Pleasant, seated on the border of a large plain,
affords, from its top, a fine view of the adjacent
country. The base is a mile and a half in cir-
cumference, while the apex is only about 30 by
100 yards, resembling, at a distance, a huge pyr-
amid. These lofty towers of sandstone are like

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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