eo many monuments to point out the boundaries
of that ancient Western Mediterranean which once
covered the present rich prairies of Ohio." Mount
Pleasant is tolerably easy of ascent from the N. E.,
and is much resorted to by tourists and parties
of pleasure for the extensive prospect of the sur-
rounding country which it commands. Lancaster
is supplied from this mountain with abundance
of building stone and sand.
The main trunk of the Ohio Canal traverses
the N. W. section of this county, and the Hock-
hocking Canal, which is a branch from the same,
passing S. E. through Lancaster to Logan, on
the Hockhocking River, opens a channel of
transportation directly through the centre of the
Fairfield co. was constituted, by proclama-
tion of Governor St. Clair, December 9, 1800.
Lancaster, which had been laid out, in the fall of
the same year, by Ebenezer Zane, was designated
as the county seat; and, as the tide of emigra-
tion was at this time setting in with great force,
the town experienced a rapid growth. It is re-
lated of the early inhabitants, that, in the absence
of temperance statutes, they met and enacted the
following : That any person of the town found
intoxicated should, for every such otfence, dig a
stump out of the streets, or else suffer personal
chastisement " — a law which either in the keep-
ing or breaking must happily have enured to the
benefit of the town.
Fairhaven, Ms., Bristol co. Previous to 1812,
this town was a part of New Bedford. The vil-
lages of Fairhaven and Bedford, at. the head of
Buzzard's Bay, were laid out about the year 1764,
on opposite sides of the Acushnet River, which
expands between the two villages, and forms a
safe and commodious harbor of nearly a mile in
breadth. At Acushnet village, in this town, is a
good water power Fairhaven is connected with
New Bedford by a bridge across the Acushnet;
also by a steam ferry. This is, indeed, a fair
haven; from the circumstance of its beauty it
was thus justly named.
Fair Haven, Yt., Rutland co. The surface of
the township consists of swells and vales. The
soil is various, consisting of gravel, sand, and
marl. Along the rivers the soil is alluvial, and
very productive. There is a variety of timber.
The principal streams are Poultney and Castle-
ton Rivers. About one mile above Fair Haven
village, Castleton River receives the waters of
Lake Bombazine, and one mile W. of the village,
it joins Poultney River, and, after running 3 miles
farther, falls into the lake. Between the junc-
tion of these streams and the lake are two con-
siderable falls. The settlement commenced in
1779, by people from Connecticut and Massa-
chusetts. 16 miles W. from Rutland.
Fairmount, Ya., c. h. Marion co. On the Mo-
nongahela and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
Fuirport, 0., Painesville township, Lake co.,
was called Grandon for a short time after it was
laid out. The town is situated on the southern
shore of Lake Erie, also on the E. bank of Grand
River, at its mouth. Considerable business is car-
ried on here. There is an excellent harbor, and it
is a regular place of landing and embarkation for
passengers between the western country and the
state of New York. Distances 170 miles N. E.
from Columbus, and 32 N. E. from Cleveland.
This is the port of Painesville, and connected
with it by a railroad 3 miles long.
Fairlee, Yt., Orange co. This is a rough and
mountainous township, with very little produc-
tive land, on the W. side of Connecticut River,
and connected with Orford, N. H., by a bridge
across that river. Fairlee Pond is 2 miles in
length, and about three fourths of a mile wide.
The settlement was commenced in 1766, by Mr.
Baldwin. Distances 17 miles E. S. E. from Chel-
sea, and 31 S. E. from Montpelier.
Fairview, Pa., Erie co. On Lake Erie, and
drained by Walnut and Elk Creeks. Surface
hilly; soil gravelly loam. 267 miles N. W. from
Fairview, Pa., York co. Surface somewhat
hilly1-, and watered by Yellow Breeches, Fishing,
and Newberry Creeks ; soil gravel and calcareous
loam. 17 miles N. W. from York.
Fairview, 0., Guernsey co. 105 miles E. from
Fall River, Ms., Bristol co. Port of entry.
54 miles, by railroad, S. from Boston, 18 S. E.
from Providence, R. I., and 18 N. N. E. from
Newport. Population in 1810,1296 ; 1820,1594 ;
1830, 4158; 1840, 6738; 1850, 11,522.
This flourishing town lies at the head of the
eastern arm of the Narraganset Bay, called
Mount Hope Bay, where it receives the Taunton
River. It has taken its name from another river
which here falls into the bay from the E., by a
descent over its rocky bed, in less than half a
mile, of over 130 feet. This river forms the out-
let of Watuppa Ponds, which lie about 2 miles
E. of the village. The area of these ponds is
about 5000 acres; and their principal supply for
the fine water power which they create is from
perpetual internal springs. The town of Fall
River is almost without a parallel in respect to
the union of an extensive hydraulic power, with
a position immediately upon navigable waters.
The river, for almost its entire length, flows from
the ponds upon a granite bed, and for much of
the distance it is confined between high granite
banks. This water power, therefore, has all, or
nearly all, to be occupied between these banks;
and the wheels, upon which it is brought to act,
are placed directly in the bed of the river. The
whole of this fall is now occupied by large man-
ufacturing establishments, generally occupying
each a separate dam, and some of them extend-
ing entirely across the river, from bank to bank;
and so rapidly do they succeed each other, that
there is scarcely left between the buildings suf-
ficient room for light and air.
It is a characteristic of this river, that "while it
affords an almost uniform and constant supply
of water, it is never subject to excess ; and there-
fore no injury or inconvenience has ever been
experienced from so peculiar a location of the
mills. The great business of Fall River, and
that mainly which has given to it its present
importance, is manufacturing. The hydraulic
power of the river, although comparatively the
volume of water is not large, is, nevertheless,
owing to the steadiness of the supply and the
certainty with which it can be controlled, avail-
able to a much greater extent than usual. Steam
power has also been introduced and applied to
the carrying on of some large operations.
The principal manufactures are of cotton,
wool, and iron, with the printing of calico and
the making cf machinery. From 50,000 to
75,000 spindles are employed in the cotton man-
ufacture. The calico printing works turn out