Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 423

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chiefly paved and curbed, and are neatly kept.
The two principal streets are King and Queen
Streets, at the intersection of which, in the cen-
tre of the city, is a handsome square, containing
the court house. Many buildings still remain
in the ancient style, as built by the German
settlers, which are principally one story brick
houses, with wide roofs and dormer windows;
but the houses of more recent date are lofty, and
many of them elegant, with every modern con-
venience and embellishment. Besides the pecu-
liarities above mentioned, which had their origin
in the fashions of the olden time, a stranger is
struck with the number and character of the
tavern signs which are hung out in the principal
streets, and which, as one writer remarks, “ form
a sort of out-doorpicture gallery,'' in which “ may
be seen half the kings of Europe — the king of
Prussia, of Sweden, and the prince of Orange;
then the warriors — Washington, Lafayette,
Jackson, Napoleon, William Tell, and a whole
army of others; and then the statesmen — Jef-
ferson, Franklin, and others; and then comes the
Bed Lion of England, leading a long procession
of lions, bears, stags, bulls, horses, eagles, swans,
black, white, dun, and red; not to mention the
inanimate emblems, the globe, the cross-keys,
the plough, the wheat sheaf, the compass and
square, and the hickory tree.'' These numerous
inns were formerly much more in demand than
at present; when the whole business of trans-
portation was carried on in wagons, over the
great Western Turnpike, passing through this
place from Pittsburg to Philadelphia.

Lancaster is an illustration of the change
made in the prospects of many an inland town
in our country by the introduction of railroads.
When spoken of by Governor Pownal, who vis-
ited it in 1754, as already a “growing town,'' with
fair promise of increase, some one, in alluding
to this opinion, remarked, that “ from its local
remote from water, Lancaster was not,
nor could it ever possibly become, a place of busi-
ness.'' Such, until recent times, would have
been the natural conclusion from the fact that a
place had not been located upon a large navi-
gable river. But the era of internal improve-
ments, especially the construction of railroads,
has changed all this. Speaking of Lancaster as
it now appears, a descriptive author observes,
“ This place well deserves the title of a city;
there is nothing rural in its aspect. The streets,
laid off at right angles, are paved and lighted;
the houses, generally of brick, are compactly ar-
ranged ; and those of modern date are lofty and
well built; . . . the place is supplied with wa-
ter by an artificial basin and waterworks; stores,
taverns, and shops abound in every quarter;
railroad cars, stages, canal boats, and wagons
are constantly arriving or departing; and all
together there is that rattle and din that remind
one of city life.''

Among the manufactories of this place are
two for cotton fabrics, which employ about 900

Lancaster has had the benefit of every species
of internal improvement in the order in which
they have arisen. The turnpike from this place
to Philadelphia, completed in 1794, at a cost of
$465,000, paved at first with stone, and since
McAdamized, was the first road of the kind
built in the United States. The splendid stone
bridge over the Conestoga Creek, built by in-
dividual enterprise, in 1799, was a work of which,
at that early period, the state might have been
proud, and which contributed, in no small meas-
ure, to the prosperity of the place. Then fol-
lowed, in 1829, the improvements for rendering
the Conestoga Creek navigable from Lancaster
to the Susquehanna Biver, a distance of 18
miles, which was accomplished by means of a
series of 9 locks, creating slack water pools, at a
cost of about $75,000. By means of this work,
in connection with a tide water canal to Port
Deposit, a navigable communication was opened
to Baltimore. In 1834, the Philadelphia and
Columbia Eailroad, passing by Lancaster, was
opened; and, in 1838, the railroad from Lancas-
ter to Harrisburg, since extended to Pittsburg,
and in another direction to Hagarstowu, in Ma-


A college was established at Lancaster in
1787, called “ Franklin College,'' for which spa-
cious buildings were erected; but it afterwards
declined to the rank of an academy or high

Lancaster District, S. C., c. h. at Lancaster.
Bounded N. by North Carolina, E. by Lynche's
Creek, separating it from Chester district, S. by
Kershaw district, and W. by Catawba Biver,
separating it from Chester district. Drained by
branches of Catawba Biver and Lynche's Creek.

Lancaster, S. C., c. h. Lancaster district. On a
small branch of Catawba Biver. 72 miles N.
E. from Columbia.

Lancaster County, Va., c. h. at Heathville. It
is bounded N. by Bichmond co., E. by Northum-
berland co. and Chesapeake Bay, and
S. and W.
by the Eappahannock Biver, separating it from
Middlesex co.

Lancaster, Va., c. h. Lancaster co. 38 miles
E. by N. from Bichmond.

Landgrove, Vt., Bennington co. This town is
on elevated land, at the N. E. corner of the coun-
ty. Some of the head branches of West Biver
have their sources here. The lands are too rough
and high for much improvement. The settlement
was commenced by William Utley and family,
in June, 1769, emigrants from Ashford, Ct. 33
miles N. E. from Bennington, and 70 S. from

Landaff, N. H., Grafton co. Wild and Great
Amonoosuck Eivers pass through this town.
Landaff Mountain, Cobble and Bald Hills are
the principal elevations. The farmers here are
very industrious, and the soil well rewards them
for their labor. The town of Landaff was
granted, in 1764, to James Avery and others.
12 miles N. E. from Haverhill, and 95 N. by
from Concord.

Lanesboro', Ms., Berkshire co., was incorpo-
rated on the 20th of June, 1765, and then includ-
ed a large part of the present town of Cheshire.
The soil is of an excellent quality, mostly clay
loam. The
S. branch of the Hoosic rises in the
S. E. corner of the town, the W. branch of the
Housatonic passes by the centre and runs through
Lanesboro' Pond into Pittsfield. This pond is
partly in the latter town. It abounds with fish.
The scenery, from various points, is picturesque
and delightful. This town affords iron ore, and
extensive beds of beautiful white and clouded
marble, and graphic slate. There is in Lanes-
boro' a large rock, so equally balanced upon
another that it can be easily moved. The set-
tlement of this town commenced in 1754.

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain image

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