Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 437

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rapidly to build up the place, and the energy and
foresight of these enterprising capitalists were
largely rewarded.

This old canal having, of late years, proved
in some degree insufficient, a new one was con-
structed in 1847, of great capacity and superior
workmanship, costing $640,000. This canal is
nearly 1 mile in length, averaging 100 feet wide
and 15 feet deep; and for size, solidity, and the
completeness of all its arrangements, is said to
exceed any thing of the kind in the United States.

The whole number of mills belonging to the
12 manufacturing corporations of Lowell, on
the 1st of January, 1851, was 50; containing
325,500 spindles and 9906 looms; the number
of males employed, 3702; females, 8274; pounds
of cotton consumed per week, 575,400; pounds
of wool consumed per week, 69,000 ; making of
cotton cloth, per week, 2,190,000 yards; of
woollen cloth, 20,477 yards; and of carpeting,

15,000 yards. The average wages earned by
males, clear of board, is 80 cents per day; and
by females, clear of board, $2 per week.—
These mills are all now lighted with gas, and
warmed by steam. Besides these there are ex-
tensive powder mills, paper mills, and mills for
making batting, the Lowell bleachery, a foun-
dery and planing mill, with a variety of other
manufactures, carried on by individual proprie-
tors of large means, which together employ as
many as 1500 hands.

The public buildings of Lowell are a Court
House, City Hall, Market House, a Hospital, a
Mechanics' Hall, the houses for public worship,
which are generally handsome, and the edifices
for the public schools. The Mechanics' Hall
was erected by an association of mechanics, in-
corporated as early as 1825. It is a spacious
and expensive building, in the heart of the city,
furnished with a fine library and reading room,
with philosophical apparatus and a mineralogi-
cal cabinet. Courses of lectures, literary and
scientific, are delivered here. There is also a
valuable library of 7000 volumes belonging to
the city, which is open to all persons for the
small fee of fifty cents per annum. The Hospi-
tal was established in 1839, by the several manu-
facturing companies, for the convenience and
comfort of persons employed by them, when
sick; where, for a very small price, an experi-
enced physician and nurses are provided.

Perhaps nothing has contributed more to en-
courage industry, frugality, and thrift, among the
operatives, than the Institutions for Savings, of
which there are now two in Lowell. The labor-
ers are the principal depositors in these banks,
the greater part being females. The number
of depositors November 1, 1851, was 6224; and
the amount of deposits $812,598.63.

The fire department in thi» city is very effi-
cient and well organized. A reservoir of great
capacity has been constructed on the high ground
in Belvidere, for the purpose of furnishing a
ready supply of water to any part of the city in
case of fires. The water is carried into the res-
ervoir by forcing pumps from the Lowell Ma-
chine Shop, and thence distributed through pipes
to the hydrants in the city.

The number of churches in Lowell of all de-
nominations is 23. The population, although so
largely composed of young persons but recently
removed from the counsels and restraints of the
parental roof, is superior to that of most cities,
for general intelligence, sobriety and correct de-

For nothing, perhaps, does Lowell deserve
more credit than for her liberal provision for the
public schools. This wise policy was early
adopted, and has perseveringly enlarged its op-
erations with the growth of the city. From
$1200. the amount appropriated for the support
of the public schools in 1827, the annual appro-
priation in 1850 had risen to $43,000. These
schools consist of a high school, 10 grammar
schools, and 46 primary schools. The total ex-
penditures of the city for 1850 was $178,614.

The place where Lowell stands was known
in the early annals of the country as one of the
best fishing grounds of the Indians in all New
England. The ‘'Apostle Eliot '' speaks of one
or two excursions which he made to “ Pawtucket
Falls,'' to become acquainted with the tribes of
Indians from the interior, and to teach them the
principles of Christianity. They continued even
to a late day, after the country around began to
be settled, to retain their title to a right at this
fishing ground. There are still evident marks,
it is said, of a trench which once enclosed a
large area, about the junction of Merrimac and
Concord Rivers, which was expressly reserved
for the use of the Indians. How altered now
the scene! How different the enterprise, which
brings such multitudes to sojourn at these falls!

Lowell must be considered as a magnificent
and most successful experiment of an American
manufacturing city, upon which our countrymen
look with pride and foreigners with admiration.
To its founders, a few Boston capitalists, be-
longs the credit of establishing a wise system of
means to produce at once the most successful
pecuniary, social, and moral results ; in a great
measure precluding the evils of ignorance, degra-
dation, and vice, which were once thought insep-
arable from large manufacturing towns. No
community, for the period of its existence, has
enjoyed more of the substantial comforts of life,
or possesses better intellectual and moral advan-
tages, than Lowell. It has become an honor to
the state in which it is located, and a model to
the manufacturing cities springing up around it,
and in other parts of the land. May this great
and industrious city always continue to be wor-
thy of the title given it by the Hon. Edward
Everett, in his Memoirs of
Francis C. Lowell,
from whom it derives' its name — “ The noble
City of the Arts.''

Lowell, Vt., Orleans co. The Missisco River
originates in a small pond, nearly on the line
between this township and Eden, and taking a
northerly course, and receiving a number of
considerable tributaries, enters Westfield near
its S. E. corner. Although encompassed by
mountains on all sides, except the N. E., much
of the township is handsome land, easy to till,
and generally productive. At the grist mill,
near the centre of Lowell, the whole river passes
through a hole in the solid rock. This natural
bridge is situated at the foot of a fall in the river
of about 10 feet. The first permanent settle-
ment was made in 1806, by Major William
Caldwell. 9 miles S. W. from Irasburg, and
40 N. from Montpelier.

Lower Chichester, Pa., Delaware co. Surface
level, and watered by Hook, a branch of Naa-
man's Creek; soil loam.

Lower Dublin, Pa., Philadelphia co. Penny*

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