Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 440

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the midst of bold and beautiful scenery, within
view of the Blue Ridge and the Peaks of Otter.
It was incorporated in 1805, and has risen to the
rank of a flourishing commercial mart. The
buildings, both public and private, are substan-
tial and elegant, indicative of the wealth, intelli-
gence, and taste of the inhabitants. Seven or
eight of the prevailing religious denominations
have churches here. There are six or seven
large hotels, a large cotton factory, an iron
foundery, several extensive flouring mills, and
about thirty tobacco factories, in which from

35,000 to 40,000 boxes of tobacco are manufac-
tured annually. Lynchburg has an extensive
trade with the N., the N.-W., and S. parts of Vir-
ginia, and with the adjacent parts of Ohio, Ken-
tucky, Tennessee, and North Carolina. A bridge
crosses the James River in front of the town;
and by a. dam, some distance above, water is
taken out of the river, and raised, by machinery,
through an ascending pipe 2000 feet long, to an
elevation 253 feet above the stream, for the sup-
ply of the inhabitants. A water power is also
created by this dam which is capable of extensive
application to manufacturing purposes.

Lyndeboro1, N. H., Hillsboro' co. This is an
elevated township, having a considerable moun-
tain, which divides it from E. to W. There is
below the mountain a plain, where there is a
small village, pleasantly situated near Piscata-
quog River. The soil, though stony, is deep and
strong, and excellent for grazing. The streams
are small. In 1753, Benjamin Lynde, Esq., of
Salem, purchased a large part of the township
and adjoining lands. From him the place took
the name of Lyndeboro'. First settlers: the
earliest names were Putnam, Chamberlain, and
Cram. 10 miles W. N. W. from Amherst, and
30 S. S. W. from Concord.

Lyndon, N. Y., Cattaraugus co. Drained by
Ischua and Oil Creeks. Surface undulating;
soil sandy loam and clay. 18 miles E. from
Ellicottville, and 274 S. of W. from Albany.

Lyndon, Vt., Caledonia co. Lyndon is one of
the best townships in the state; its surface is un-
dulating, with a soil of rich loam, free from
stone, and easy to cultivate. It is well watered
by the Passumpsic and some of its tributaries.
Two important falls of that river are in the town,
one of 65 feet in the distance of 30 rods, the other
of 18 feet. These are called Great and Little
Falls, and afford a water power of great extent.
Agaric mineral, used for chalk, and a good sub-
stitute for Spanish white, is found here. The
principal village is very pleasant, and the seat of
considerable business. The settlement was com-
menced by Daniel Cahorn, Jr., in 1788.    14 miles

N. E. from Danville, and 44 N. E. from Mont-

Lynn, Ms., Essex co. This city lies on the N.
shore of Massachusetts Bay, 9 miles, by the
Eastern Railroad, N. N. E. from Boston, and 5
miles S. from Salem. It extends 6 miles on the
sea, this portion of the township being a plane,
bounded on the N. by a chain of bold, rocky
hills, chiefly composed of porphyry. Beyond this
rocky barrier lies an extensive tract of woodland,
into which Lynn extends about 5 miles. Its In-
dian name was Saugus. It is surrounded al-
most by water, having the River Saugus on the
W., the harbor on the S., the ocean on the S. E.,
and a chain of large ponds, called the “ Lakes of
Lynn,'' on the N. From the S. side a peninsula,
with a splendid beach, extends four miles into the
ocean, at the extremity of which is the celebrated
watering-place Nahant. See
Fashionable Resorts.
On another projection of this romantic-shore, is
Phillips's Point, which also is a place of fashiona-
ble resort in the summer season. A mineral
spring in the N. part of the town is also a place of
much celebrity.

The city is neatly built, on wide and pleasant
streets, and is one of the most flourishing and
beautiful places in New England. The popula-
tion in 1790 was 2291 ; 1800, 2837 ; 1810, 4087;
1820,4515; 1830,6138; 1840,9367; 1850,14,257.

There are in Lynn 15 churches of various de-
nominations, nine or ten principal school houses,
an academy, banks, insurance offices, and a large
number of literary, social, and beneficent so-
cieties. This place has risen to wealth and im-
portance by the industry and enterprise of its
people in the manufacture of shoes, for which
it has been longer celebrated than any other
town in the country. The manufacture of ladies'
shoes was commenced here before the revolution-
ary war. Previous to the war, the market for
Lynn shoes was principally confined to New
England, except that a few were sent to Phila-
delphia. Many individuals with small capital
carried on the business in their own families;
fathers, sons, apprentices, with one or two jour-
neymen perhaps, all in one small shop, forming
the whole establishment. After the revolution,
the business assumed a different aspect. Enter-
prising individuals embarked in it on a more
enlarged scale, building large shops, and em-
ploying a great number of journeymen. Master
workmen exported their shoes to the south, and
to other parts of the country, so that the shoes
from Lynn soon took the place of the English
and other imported shoes.

There are in Lynn upwards of 130 principal
shoe manufacturers and merchants, giving em-
ployment in this species of industry to about

10,000 persons, of both sexes. More than

3,000,000 pairs of ladies' and misses' shoes are
made there annually. From 300,000 to 400,000
pairs besides are purchased from other towns for
the trade, making an annual business, in this
article alone, of nearly $2,500,000.

The other principal business of Lynn is the
cod and mackerel fishery, which is often very

From the eminences back of the city a most
enchanting prospect is presented to the eye, com-
prehending the harbors of Boston and Salem,
with their numerous islands; the spires and
domes of those cities, and nearly the whole com-
pass of Massachusetts Bay, with the Blue Hills
and the outline of Cape Cod stretching along
the southern horizon. Jutting out into the sea, a
few furlongs on the S., appear the rugged cliffs
of Nahant, and the hard, polished beach leading to
it, like a narrow footpath of sand upon the waters.

Lynn County, On. In the valley of the Willa-

Lynnjield, Ms., Essex co. This was formerly
the N. parish of Lynn, and called Lynn End.
The town is watered by Ipswich and Saugus
Rivers and two very handsome ponds. The sur-
face is uneven, but the soil is strong and fertile.
Lynnfield contains large tracts of woodland, and
no town, so near the city, presents more wild and
romantic scenery. 13 miles N. from Boston, and
8 W. by N. from Salem.

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