Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 475

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said, on the one hand, to have no legalized mod-
em authority for its use, and yet, on the other, to
be traditionally or historically unavoidable. It
is not recognized, of course, in the enumeration
of the states of the American Union; and the
same may be said of the convenient division of
Middle States, Southern States, Western States,
&c.; but although not specifically authorized in
the national constitution, we repeat, it is in anoth-
er view necessary. And this shall be explained.

The discovery of the northern part of the
American continent was effected by Cabot in
1497, five years after Columbus had landed in
the West Indies. But Erance, in 1524, became
emulous of sharing with Spain and England, and
efforts were made for that end. However, neither
of these powers made any permanent settlement
in North America for many years afterwards.
Some Protestants, authorized by the celebrated
Coligny, then admiral, attempted to form a col-
ony in Florida, 1562, with permission of Charles
IX., then king; but it was frustrated. (See
Annals, under the respective dates, &c.)
At length, in 1604, after the coast had been re-
peatedly visited, a settlement of Frenchmen was
made in that part of Canada which received the
name of “Aeadie,'' afterwards called “ Nova Sco-
tia,'' but then denominated “ Nouvelle France.''

Between these two, Florida and Canada, or
New France, the country had, from 1584, been
called “ Virginia,'' in compliment to the Queen of
England; but no permanent settlement was ef-
fected until 1607, although repeated attempts had
been made towards the close of the previous cen-
tury, under the able but unfortunate Sir Walter
Raleigh, at great sacrifice of money and of men.

In 1609, the Dutch, then a strong maritime
power, were invested with the possession of the
territory named by them “ New Netherlands,'' and
now constituting a part of the state of New York.
In 1606, King James I. had divided Virginia into
the north and south portions, and authorized
distinct companies for effecting
settlements in each
of these divisions, who were not inactive, but
in the northern part unsuccessful; their effort at
the mouth of the Kennebec proving abortive.
But Captain John Smith, the hero of Virginia,
and its governor, having explored, in 1614, the
coasts between the Penobscot, or Pentagoet, and
Hudson Rivers, presented his chart of them to the
Prince of Wales, afterward Charles I., who gave
to the territory the name of “ New England.''

Now, the settlement at Plymouth, in 1620, being
made by native but exiled Englishmen, whose
nearest European neighbors on the American
coast were French or Dutch, the name of “ New
England '' became precious to them; and, as dis-
tinctive, it was necessary; not an arbitrary as-
sumption, or arrogated exclusively, in reference
to other colonies from the same country, either
by themselves or their posterity under the Stu-
arts. If, since that period, it has been familiarly
employed, that circumstance is due principally to
the fact, that the inhabitants of the six sovereign
states of our Union which now occupy the ter-
ritory, namely, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Maine,
sometimes denominated the Eastern States, were
mostly of kindred blood until a recent period,
being generally of unmixed English descent,
and, for the most part, sympathizing in religion,
both as regards its privileges and the reproaches
it may have been called to sustain.

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As Virginia, being first settled from England,
is often called the “ Ancient Dominion,'' so the
territory connected with Plymouth is called the
“Old Colony;'' having, until 1686, sustained a
separate government, independent of Massachu-
setts. At that time, also, all the New England
governments then existing were placed under a
president, as they had been previously united
for mutual defence by the memorable confeder-
acy of 1643, of which an interesting account has
been given by the second President Adams, pub-
lished in the 29th volume of Collections of the
Massachusetts Historical Society.

New England Village, Ms., Worcester co. In
the town of Grafton. See
Grafton. 38 miles W.
from Boston.

New Fairfield, Ct., Fairfield co. This is a
small township, rough and hilly, with a hard and
gravelly soil. 64 miles S. W. from Hartford.

Newfane, N. Y., Niagara co. On the border
of Lake Ontario. Drained by Eighteen Mile
Creek. The surface is mostly level, sloping
gradually towards the lake; soil argillaceous
and sandy loam. 10 miles N. from Loekport,
and 287 N. of W. from Albany.

Newfane, Vt., c. h. Windham co. This
town is watered by a branch of West River, and
several other streams. The surface is diver-
sified; the soil good, and produces white oak
and walnut in abundance. There is but little
waste land in the town. Newfane exhibits a
great variety of minerals, among which are some
of value. There are two pleasant villages in the
town. The court-house village is called Fayette-
ville. The settlement was commenced in the
month of May, 1766, by Deacon Jonathan Park,
Nathaniel Stedman, and Ebenezer Dyer, who
emigrated from Worcester co., Ms. 115 miles
S. from Montpelier, and 12 N. W. from Brat-

Newfield, Me., York co. Watered by Little
Ossipee River. A good farming town. 99 miles
S. W. by W. from Augusta.

Newfield, N. Y., Tompkins co. Watered by
Cayuga Creek and the inlet of Cayuga Lake.
Surface hilly and broken; soil productive. 6
miles S. W.from Ithaca, and 175 W. from Albany.

New Garden, Pa., Chester co. Watered hJ
Red Clay and White Clay Creeks. Surface lev-
el ; soil calcareous loam. 74 miles E. S. E. from

New Geneva, Pa., Fayette co. On Mononga-
hela River, at the mouth of George Creek, and
196 miles W. by
S. from Harrisburg.

New Gloucester, Me., Cumberland co. A fer-
tile township. 23 miles N. from Portland.

New Hampton, N. H., Belknap co. Pemige-
wasset River is the only stream of magnitude in
the town; over it is a bridge which unites the
town with Bristol. There is a remarkable spring
on the W. side of Kelly's Hill, from which is-
sues a stream that is never affected by rains or
droughts. Pemigewasset Pond lies on the bor-
der of Meredith. There are four other ponds in
this town. The soil, though the surface is broken
and uneven, is remarkably fertile, producing
grain and grass in abundance. In the S. part of
the town is a high hill, of a conical form, which
may be seen, in almost any direction, from 10 to
50 miles. The academical and theological in-
stitution in this town is finely located. First
settler, Samuel Kelly, in 1775. 30 miles N. by
W. from Concord, and 15 N. W. from Gilford.

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