Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 476

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The Concord and Montreal Railroad passes
through this town.

New Hanover County, N. C., c. h. at Wilming-
ton. Bounded N. by Sampson and Duplin coun-
ties, E. by Onslow co., S. E. and
S. by the
Atlantic Ocean, and W. by Cape Fear River and
one of its tributaries, separating it from Bruns-
wick and Bladen counties. Drained by the N.
E. branch of Cape Fear River. In the E. part
of this county is a large swamp, and along the
coast is a chain of low, narrow islands.

New Hanover, Pa., Montgomery co. Swamp
Creek waters this town, the surface of which is
hilly, and the soil loam and red shale, of medium
quality. 74 miles E. from Harrisburg.

New Harmony, la., Posey co. On the E. side
of the Wabash River. 16 miles N. from Mount
Vernon, on the Ohio River, and 172
S. W. from
Indianapolis. It is situated on a wide and rich
plateau or second bottom, and has a healthy and
pleasant location. Its position on the river is
very favorable for trade. It was first settled in
1814, by a religious sect of Germans under
George Rapp, who denominated themselves
“ Harmonists.'' They came in a body from
Beaver Creek, Pa., where they had previously
settled on their first arrival from Germany. Af-
ter remaining here a few years, during which
they made great improvements, turning the wil-
derness into a garden, they returned again to the
place of their first settlement, now called
, on the Ohio River, 18 miles below Pittsburg.
To the community of George Rapp succeeded
that of Robert Owen, of Lanark, Scotland, who
purchased the village of New Harmony of its
original proprietors, the Harmonists, and com-
menced here his experiment of a new “ social
system.'' After about a year, Mr. Owen returned
to Europe, and the “ society '' which he had gath-
ered, of about 800 persons, was soon abandoned.

New Hartford, Ct., Litchfield co. This town
was first settled in 1733. The surface of the
town is hilly and mountainous. The lands are
best adapted to grazing. It is watered by Far-
mington River and other streams, on which are
several mills. In the eastern part of this town
there is a rough and mountainous district, former-
ly designated
Satan's Kingdom. 20 miles N. W.
from Hartford.

New Hartford, N. Y., Oneida co. The Sada-
quada Creek, one of the most valuable mill
streams in the state, waters this town on the N.
Its surface is varied ; soil fertile calcareous loam.
4 miles S. from Utica, and 98 N. W. from

New Haven County, Ct., c. h. at New Haven.
New Haven co. is bounded N. by Litchfield and
Hartford counties, E. by Middlesex co., S. by
Long Island Sound, and W. by Litchfield co.
and the Housatonic River, which separates it
from Fairfield co. This county, lying on Long
Island Sound, has a very extensive maritime
border, but its foreign trade is chiefly confined to
New Haven harbor. Its fisheries of oysters and
clams, and other fish, are valuable. It is inter-
sected by several streams, none of them of veiy
large size, but of some value for their water
power and fish. Of these the principal are the
Pomperaug and Naugatuck, on the W.; Quinni-
piac, Menunkatuck, West, and Mill Rivers on the
E. The Quinnipiac is the largest, and passes
through extensive meadows. The county is inter-
sected centrally by the Canal Railroad, which
passes through this county from N. to S. There
is a great variety of soil in this county, as well
as of native vegetable and mineral productions.
The range of secondary country, which extends
along Connecticut River as far as Middletown,
there leaves that stream, crosses into this county,
and terminates at New Haven. This intersec-
tion of the primitive formation by a secondary
ridge affords a great variety of minerals, and ma-
terials for different soils.

New Haven, Ct., city and c. h. New Haven
co., lies at the head of a harbor which sets up
miles from Long Island Sound. It is, by rail-
76 miles from New York, 36 from Hart-
ford, and 101 from Boston. It is the capital of
a county of the same name, and the semi-cap-
ital of Connecticut, and contains a larger pop-
ulation than any other town in the state. The
site of New Haven is on a large and level
plain, surrounded by hills and mountains, ex-
cept at the S., in the direction of the harbor.
The harbor is formed by the confluence of three
rivers, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers on the E., and
West River on the W. The most striking ob-
jects which arrest the attention of the traveller
in approaching the city from the S. are the East
and West Rocks, two bold, perpendicular preci-
pices of rude, naked trap rock, the former
and the latter 400 feet in height. These rocks
have a reddish appearance, and from this circum-
stance the Dutch, who appear to have been ac-
quainted with the locality before the arrival of
the English, called the place “ Red Rock.'' Its
Indian name was
Quinnipiac, the name of a tribe
who occupied the place and its vicinity. New
Haven was first settled in
1638, by a company,
of whom John Davenport and Theophilus Eaton
were leaders. Mr. Davenport was a celebrated
minister in London, and Mr. Eaton an eminent
merchant, and most of the settlers were persons
of piety, wealth, and influence, and it was their
intention to plant a mercantile colony.

The original town was laid out in a plot half a
mile square, which was subdivided into 9 squares,
by streets four rods in width. As the population
increased, these squares were subdivided into
smaller ones, and other streets were laid out, ex-
tending in every direction from the original town
plot. The central square, usually styled the
Green, containing the state house and three
churches, is enclosed by an iron fence, surrounded
on all sides by rows of stately elms, and is consid-
ered as one of the most beautiful parks or greens
in the United States. The principal edifices of
Yale College, four stories in height, face the en-
tire length of the western boundary of the green,
presenting an imposing aspect. Yale College,
from which New Haven derives much of its
celebrity, was founded in 1
700, and is one of the
oldest and most distinguished literary institutions
in this country, and more students are annually
educated here than in any other place in the
United States. The whole number of students in-
1851, connected with the college, wras 558. The
number of graduates, to
1850, is 5932. The gener-
al management of the college is committed to the
corporation, consisting of the president, the gover
nor and lieutenant governor of the state, the six
oldest members of the state senate, and ten clergy-
men of the state, chosen by the clerical part of the
corporation. The faculty, to whom is intrusted
the government and instruction of the students,
consists of the president, the professors, and tutors.

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