Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 486

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Broadway at Union Square, which open avenues
entirely across the city, from river to river, though
there are several others through which a contin-
uous course may be pursued for nearly the whole
distance. Such are Grand, Broome, Houston,
and Fourth Streets, which are continuous from
the East River to that section of the city on the
North River side called Greenwich. No city can
exhibit a more regular and beautiful plan than
this, in all that portion of it which has grown
up since the survey completed in 1821. This
survey, which occupied about 10 years, under
the direction of Gouverneur Morris, De Witt Clin-
ton, and others, commissioners appointed by the
legislature for the purpose, was extended as far
N. as One Hundred Fifty-Fourth Street, 9| miles
from the Battery.

It is impossible here to notice all the important
streets in this London of America. Broadway is
the great promenade of the city, and one of the
grandest streets in the world. It is elegantly
built, with many houses, hotels, stores, and church
edifices, which are costly and beautiful specimens
of architecture. Here may be found the most
extensive and brilliant display of dry goods and
fancy articles, at wholesale and retail, particularly
the latter. The Bowery is a wide street E. of
Broadway, running from Chatham Square N.,
connecting with the Third and Fourth Avenues,
and forming the principal entrance into the heart
of the city from Haerlem, on the N. E. The
Haerlem Railroad is laid on the Fourth Avenue
and the Bowery; and the Third Avenue is a
McAdamized road to Haerlem. Chatham Street,
connecting the Bowery through Chatham Square
with Broadway at the Park, and which, in early
days, while the Park was a pasture for cattle, and
Broadway extended no farther N., was laid out
and designated as the “ High Road to Boston,''
is a great and crowded thoroughfare, distin-
guished for its numerous clothing stores. East
Broadway, running from Chatham Square paral-
lel to the East River, and Henry, Madison, and
Munroe Streets, between this and the river, are
broad and straight streets, handsomely built.
Pearl Street, between Broadway and East River,
is in a crescent form, over a mile in length, and
is the principal seat of the wholesale dry goods
and hardware business, which also extends into
Cedar, Pine, and other adjacent streets. South
Street, running along the margin of East River,
contains the warehouses and offices of the princi-
pal shipping merchants. In front of it are docks
and slips, and a dense forest of masts. Wall
Street extends from Broadway to the East River,
and is occupied with banks, brokers', insurance,
and newspaper offices. The Custom House and
the Merchants' Exchange are here. This street is
the centre of the heaviest money operations in
the United States. Greenwich Street, W. of
Broadway, is a long, wide, and nearly straight
street, extending from the Battery, parallel to the
Hudson River, nearly 2| miles. Hudson Street,
running parallel to this, from Chamber Street
to the Ninth Avenue, is wide, straight, and
well built in many of its parts. It is over 1|
miles in length. Canal Street, half a mile N. of
the City Hall, is a wide street, commencing at
Centre Street, crossing Broadway, and extend-
ing to the North River, and is the seat of an
extensive retail business. There is a large cov-
ered canal under this street. This was the north-
ern terminus of Broadway in 1800, and far
beyond the thickly-settled part of the city. It is
now much below the centre of population. Grand,
Broome, and Houston Streets are extensive and
important streets above Canal Street. Bleeker,
Bond, and numerous other streets, in the N. part
of the city, are beautifully built, and fashionable
places of residence. The avenues, so called, are
16 in number, extending, as they are laid out,
from the upper parts of the city, N., to Haerlem
River. They are generally 100 feet wide, but
are not all graded. They are crossed, above
Twelfth Street, by streets running from river to
river. The streets in this direction are numbered
First, Second, Third, &c., commencing with the
first street N. of Houston Street.

New York, in the lower part of the city, is
rather deficient in public grounds; yet' there are
several of importance. The Battery, at the south-
eastern point of the island, from which Broadway
begins, is the most beautiful of these grounds,
and the most serviceable to the citizens and to
strangers, as a healthful and delightful prom-
enade. It contains about 11 acres, beautifully
laid out with grass plats, and gravelled walks,
shaded with ornamental trees. From this ground
there is a fine view of the bay, with its shipping,
and of the adjacent shores, cities, and villages of
New Jersey, Long Island, and Staten Island.
This is considered, by many, the most delightful
promenade in the United States.

Castle Garden is built on a mole, and is con-
nected with the Battery by a bridge. It was ori-
ginally erected as a fortification. It is used
occasionally for public meetings, and 10.000
people can be accommodated within its walls, as
in a great amphitheatre. — The Bowling Green, at
the lower end of Broadway, is a small elliptical
area, 220 feet long by 140 broad, enclosed by
iron fence. Before the revolution it contained a
leaden statue of George IV., which, during the
war, was converted into bullets. — The Park is a
triangular area, including 10^ acres, between
Broadway, Chatham, and Chamber Streets. It
contains the City Hall, and two or three other
splendid public buildings. It is laid out in walks,
convenient to be used as crossings, and set with
trees. A beautiful fountain, supplied from the
Croton waterworks, here sends up a single
between 60 and 70 feet.— St. John's Park,
comprising the entire square between Beach,
Laight, Varrick, and Hudson Streets, is private
property, belonging to Trinity Church, but re-
served as a permanent open ground to the dwell-
ers on its margin. It is enclosed with a costly
iron fence, is beautifully laid out, and has a
fountain in the centre. The trees in this park
are of considerable age and size. — Washington
Square, 1^ miles N. of the City Hall, contains a
little over 9 acres. A part of this square was
formerly the Potter's Field. — Union Square is an
elliptical opening at the upper terminus of Broad-
way, ornamented with a fountain.— Grammercy
Park, near Union Square, and Tompkins Square,
in the N. E. part, and the largest in the city, are
handsomely laid out, and shaded with trees.
There are other squares, further N., laid out for
public grounds, but not yet regulated.

There are in the city of New York some of the
most costly and superb public buildings in the
country. Among these the City Hall, from its
beautiful location in the Park, where all its fine
proportions stand in open view, will be one of the
first to attract the notice of the stranger. This

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain image

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