Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 512

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falls, about 4 miles from its entrance into Newark
Bay. It is on the railroad which, passing through
New Jersey, connects the Erie Bailroad with
Jersey City, opposite New York, from which
Paterson is 17 miles distant. The early history
of this place is interesting, in connection with
the subject of manufacturing enterprise in this
country. It was established by a society, incor-
porated in 1791, for the purpose of fostering this
important branch of political economy, and is
said to have been projected by Alexander Ham-
ilton. Thi$ was soon after the first experiment
of spinning cotton by machinery had been made
at Pawtucket, K. I., which was in December,
1790, by Samuel Slater, who is not improperly
styled the
parent of the American cotton man-
ufacture.'' The company entered upon the exe-
cution of their plans at Paterson, upon a liberal
scale, with a capital of $1,000,000; but from want
of experience, and from various other disadvan-
tages, they were not at first successful. A number
of years afterwards, however, the work was taken
up by others, and prosecuted with great success.

“ The advantages derivable from the great fall
in the river here have been improved with much
judgment. A dam 4i feet high, strongly framed
and bolted to the rock in the bed of the river above
the falls, turns the stream, through a can&l exca-
vated in the trap rock of the bank, into a basin,
whence, through strong guard gates, it supplies,
in succession, three canals on separate planes,
each below the other, giving to the mills on
each a head and fall of about 22 feet.'' Upon
this fine water power a great manufacturing place
has grown up, which enjoys the varied and im-
portant advantages of an abundant and steady
supply of water, a healthy, pleasant, and fertile
surrounding country, and a near proximity to the
city of New York, with which it is connected by
the sloop navigation of the Passaic, the Morris
Canal, and the railroad abovjp mentioned. The
largest establishments here are the cotton factories,
which are about 20 in number; besides which
there are woollen factories, dyeing and printing
establishments, extensive machine shops, paper
mills, fulling mills, &c. The factories are built
chiefly of stone.

Paterson contains about 15 churches of the
various denominations, a Philosophical Society,
with a valuable library, and a Mechanics' Society
for the advancement of science and the mechanic
arts, with a library and philosophical apparatus.

It is connected by two bridges with the village
of Manchester, opposite, which, in a general view,
may be considered as a part of this place, and
contains several manufacturing establishments.

Patterson, N. Y., Putman co. Croton Biver
waters this town, the surface of which is hilly ;
the soil mostly good, and in the valleys very
fertile. 6 miles N. E. from Carmel, and 102 S.
from Albany.

Pattonsburg, Va., Bottetourt co. It is on the
N. side of James Eiver, opposite Buchanan, with
which it is connected by a bridge, making, in
fact, one village. 166 miles W. from Bichmond.

Paulding County, Ga., c. h. at Van Wert. Bound-
ed N. by Floyd and Cass counties, E. by Cobb,
S. by Carroll co., and W. by Alabama. Watered
by the head branches of Tallapoosa Biver, and by
branches of the Etowah.

Paulding, Mi., c. h. Jasper co. Located at the
of Leaf Biver. 109 miles E. S. E. from

Paulding County, O., c. h. at Charloe, situat-
ed in the N. W. part of the state, having Defiance
co. on the N. and N. W., Putnam on the E., Van
Wert on the S., and the Indiana state line on the
W. The whole surface is level, and covered with
the Black Swamp. It was constituted a county in
1820, and named in honor of John Paulding, one
of the captors of Major Andre. It is drained by
the Maumee and Auglaize Bivers. The Wabash
and Erie Canal traverses the whole extent of its
northern border, and the Miami Canal, forming
a junction with the Wabash and Erie,
5 miles N.
of Charloe, traverses its eastern border. The
county seat is situated on this canal.

Pavilion, Mn., Kalamazoo co. Watered by
branches of the St. Joseph's Biver and by the
Sandy Lakes. Soil fertile, and favorable to the
growth of grain.
138 miles W. from Detroit.

Pavilion, N. Y., Genesee co. This town was
formed on the division of the county in
having formerly constituted a part of the town of
Covington. It is watered by Allen's Creek, has a
rolling surface, and a soil very favorable to the
growth of wheat. 12 miles S. E. from Batavia
232 W. from Albany.

Pawlet, Vt., Butland co. Pawlet and Indian
Bivers pass through this town ; the latter abounds
in trout, and takes its name from the great num-
ber of Indians who formerly resorted here for the
purpose of fishing. Pawlet is divided nearly in
the centre by a range of mountains, extending
through it from S. to N. The most remarkable
summit is called Haystack Mountain. The soil
is dry and warm, easily cultivated, and produces
good crops of grain and grass. The settlement
was commenced in
1761, by Simeon Barton and
William Fairfield. 21 miles S. W.from Eutland,
27 S. E. from Whitehall, N. Y.

Pawlings, N. Y., Dutchess co. The Croton
Biver and Swamp Creeks have their sources in
several lakes and large swamps in this town.
The Fishkill Mountains also traverse it, and an
extensive valley extends from N. to S. Iron ore
of a good quality is found here, and the soil, al-
though not naturally very fertile, may be made
quite productive. 20 miles S. E. from Pough-
keepsie, and
95 S. S. E. from Albany.

Pawtucket, Ms., Bristol co. On Pawtucket or
Blackstone Biver. 4 miles N. from Providence,
39 miles by railroad S. from Boston. The
territory of the town comprises an area of only
about 2 miles square. It lies upon the boundary
of the state, and is separated from Bhode Island
by the river; which, above the Pawtucket Falls,
is called Blackstone, and below Seekonk Biver.

Pawtucket Village is situated at the falls, on
both sides of the river, partly in Pawtucket, and
partly in North Providence, B. I. The first man-
ufacture of cotton cloth in this country, by water
power machinery, was commenced at this place,
by Samuel Slater, an English emigrant, in
cember, 17 90. The hydraulic power here is very
great, the fall in the river within a short distance
being about 50 feet. Below the falls the river is
navigable, from its entrance into the bay at Prov-
idence, for vessels of considerable burden. This
has long been an important manufacturing place.
It contains numerous and extensive cotton mills
and print works, and shops for the manufacture
of cotton machinery, bobbins, spools, &c. The
manufacture of boots, shoes, chairs, cabinet wares,
and carriages is also carried on to considerable
extent, and something is done at ship building.

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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