Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 556

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The villages of Saco and Biddeford are so
gituated on both sides of the river, connected by
bridges, and united by their business relations,
that they can hardly be considered otherwise than
as one place. Some of the mills and meeting
houses above mentioned are on the Biddeford
side, and the whole appears as one extended
el us ter of buildings.

The Eastern and the Boston and Maine Rail-
roads having united before reaching this place,
pass through Saco, and connect it with all the
great routes of railroad communication.

Sacramento County, Ca., c. h. at Sacramento
City. On the E. side of the Sacramento, between
American River and the Moquelumne.

Sacramento City, Ca., c. h. Sacramento co.
This town, the second in California, is situated on
the E. bank of the Sacramento River, at the
junction of the American Fork, on the S. bank of
that stream. The Sacramento, which is a fine
river, varying from 200 to 300 yards in breadth,
its banks fringed with trees, is navigable to this
point at all seasons. The distance from San
Francisco is about 120 miles. The plan of Sac-
ramento is very simple. The town plot embraces
a square of about a mile and a half to the side,
on a level plain of great extent, and but slightly
elevated above the river. It is laid out in regu-
lar right angles, the streets running E. and W.,
being designated by the letters of the alphabet,
and those running N. and S. by the numerals.
In April, 1849, there were 4 houses in the place.
Within six months it boasted a population, in
tents and frame houses, of near 10,000. The
original forest trees, still standing in all parts of
the town, give it a very picturesque appearance.
Many of the streets are lined with oaks and syca-
mores, six feet in diameter.

Though Sacramento has not suffered, like San
Francisco, by fires, the low level of the plain on
which it stands has exposed it to ..disastrous
floods, which have made it necessary to enclose
the entire circuit of the city with a levee or dike.

The position of Sacramento makes it the grand
depot for the supply of all the northern mines.
It is also the point to which the overland emigra-
tion is directed. The banks of ihe river in this
vicinity furnish one of the best Tarming regions
in California, though the crops on the low lands
are exposed to great ravages from the periodical
floods. These advantages of situation are such
as to make it certain that Sacramento will main-
tain its position, as being, next after San Francis-
co, the first city in the state. It has regular daily
steamboat communication with San Francisco.

The gold diggings commence about 30 miles E.
from Sacramento, at the entrance of the hills,
which rise rapidly to the eastward, till they ter-
minate in the high ridge of the Sierra Nevada.
The gold was first discovered on the S. fork of
the American River, about 50 miles from Sac-
ramento, and all that neighborhood is still much
resorted to by miners.

Saddle River, N. J., Bergen co. Bounded E. by
Saddle and S. by Passaic River, and is drained by
Singac, Ivrokaevall, Preakness, Goffle, and Acker-
man's Brooks. Surface level on the E., but else-
where mountainous ; soil fertile in the valleys,
being composed of red shale and loam. 8 miles
N. W. from Hackensacktown.

Sadsbury, Pa., Chester co. This town lies on
the W. side of Brandywine River, between West
Cain and East Fallonfield.

Sadsbury, Pa., Crawford co.

Sadsbury, Pa., Lancaster co. Bounded E. by
Octara Creek, which affords hydraulic power.
Surface hilly and undulating; soil clay and cal-
careous loam. 16 miles S. W. from Lancaster.

Sagadahock, Me. The ancient name of a sec-
tion of country, at and E. of the mouth of Ken-
nebec River.

Sag Harbor, N. Y., Suffolk co. This incorpo-
rated village is situated on a body of water of
the same name, an inlet from Gardiner's Bay.
It lies partly in the town of East Hampton, and
partiy in South Hampton, at the eastern extrem-
ity of Long Island, on the S. shore of Gardiner's
Bay. It has a population of about 3000. The
whale fishery is carried on to a considerable ex-
tent, there being engaged in it from this port, in
1851, 4434 tons of shipping. The whole tonnage
of the district was 12,808 tons. 110 miles E.
from New York, and 34 from Riverhead, the
nearest point on the Long Island Railroad.

Saginaw County, Mn., c. h. at Saginaw.
Bounded N. by Midland co. and Saginaw Bay, E.
by Tuscola co., S. by Genesee and Shiawassee,
and W. by Gratiot co. Drained by Saginaw Riv-
er and branches. The surface is level or slightly
uneven: the soil a fertile sandy loam underlaid
with clay. Limestone and gypsum are found in
the N. W. part.

Saginaw, Mn., c. h. Saginaw co. Pleas-
antly situated on Saginaw River, about 23 miles
from its mouth, and at an elevation of 30 feet
above the river. 97 miles N. by W. from Detroit.

St. Albans, Me., Somerset co. A good town-
ship. 46 miles N. N. E. from Augusta.

St. Albans, Yt., c. h. Franklin co. This hand-
some village, 3 miles from Lake Champlain, and
12 from the Canada line, is built on elevated
ground, and commands a fine prospect. The
soil is fertile, and, besides the lake navigation,
the town enjoys railroad communication with
Burlington, Montreal, and Ogdensburg.

St. Augustine, Fa. City, port of entry, and
seat of justice of St. John's co. 200 miles E. by
S. from Tallahassee, and on the Atlantic coast,
about 30 miles S. of the mouth of the St. John's
River. The city stands back about 2 miles from
the coast on the side of a peninsula, and is
shielded from the force of the main ocean by
Anastasia Island, which lies before it, but is so
low and narrow as not to intercept the sea
breezes. The site of St. Augustine is itself low,
being not over 12 feet, above the level of the
ocean ; and the soil is rich in calcareous and
vegetable deposits. The climate here is reckoned
equally mild and grateful with that of Italy or
the south of France. There are only one or two
months in the year when frosts are ever experi-
enced, and the winters are sometimes passed en
tirely without them. In the summer, too, the al-
ternation of sea and land breezes both tempers
the heats by day and renders the nights generally
cool and pleasant. This is, therefore, a favorite
resort for invalids seeking to avoid the more va-
riable and rugged climate of the north.

The city lies in the form of a parallelogram,
one mile long and three fourths of a mile wide,
fronting E. on Matanzas Sound, which spreads a
half a mile before it, forming a harbor, protected
by Anastasia Island, of large capacity and of
perfect security. Not more than one half the
extent of the city is compactly built, and much
of this has an antiquated and dilapidated appear-

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