Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 562

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ly denominated the Salem witchcraft,'' this un-
happy delusion prevailed in other places long
before it existed here. In England laws had
been enacted against it, as a capital offence,
which received the sanction of that learned and
upright jurist Sir Matthew Hale. It was an
error belonging to those times, and one not a
whit more strange in its character, though liable
to be visited with a direr punishment, than some
of the delusions of the present day.

Salem was distinguished for its patriotism, and
especially for its naval achievements in the cause
of American independence. During the revolu-
tion, there were about 60 armed vessels fitted out
from Salem, manned by 4000 men; and many
were the daring and chivalrous exploits per-
formed on the sea by her citizens during that
eventful period.

Among the distinguished men, in almost every
learned profession, which Salem claims as among
its sons, the name of Nathaniel Bowditch, LL.

D., E. R. S., author of the Practical Navigator,
is identified with its fame and nautical achieve-
ments. The Practical Navigator has been trans-
lated into every European language, and its use
is coextensive with maritime adventures.

Salem, N. H., Rockingham co. Policy Pond,
partly in this town, and partly in Windham, is
the largest collection of water. World's End,
Captain, and other small ponds are also here.
The Spiggot River passes through the town, and
receives in its course numerous branches ; it fur-
nishes excellent mill privileges. The soil is
generally fertile, and the surface uneven. 40
miles S. from Concord, and about
20 S. E. from

Salem County, N.J., c.h. at Salem. Delaware
Bay bounds it on the S. W. and N. W., Gloucester
co. N. E., and Cumberland co. S. E. The sur-
face is generally level, and the soil sandy, but

Salem, N. J., c. h. Salem co. This town is sit-
uated 3^ miles above the mouth of Salem Creek.
It has 4 churches and an academy. 34 miles S.
S. E. from Philadelphia.

Salem, N. Y., Washington co. A half shire town.
Watered by Black and White Creeks, branches
of the Battenkill, which bounds it on the S., and,
together with other streams, affords good water
power. Surface undulating and hilly; soil
sandy and clay loam. 46 miles N. W. from

Salem, N. C., Stokes co. This town was plant-
ed and inhabited principally by Moravians, who
have an academy for young ladies. It is situated
5 miles E. by S. from Bethania, and about
W. by N. from Raleigh.

Salem, Pa., Luzerne co. A township on the
right bank of Susquehanna River.

Salem, Pa., Mercer co. One of the northern
townships on Little Chenango Creek.

Salem, Pa., Wayne co. A town on Waullen-
panpank Creek. 10 miles W. from Mount Maria.

Salem West, Pa., Mercer co. The northern
township of the county.

Salem, Pa., Westmoreland co. A township W.
from Lovalhanna River, commencing 5 miles
N. from Greenbury.

Salem, Vt., Orleans co. Clyde River runs
through this town, and falls into Salem Pond,
which is partly in Salem and partly in Derby.
There is no other stream of consequence. There
are two other ponds, and they are each about

one mile in length and three fourths of a mile in
breadth. South Bay of Lake Memphremagog
lies between Salem and Newport. The surface
of this town is uneven, but not mountainous.
The settlement was commenced by 'Ephraim
Black, in March, 1798. The town was organized
April 30, 1822.    10 miles N. E. from Irasburg,

and 53 N. E. from Montpelier.

Salford, Lower, Pa., Montgomery co. A town-
ship between Skippack Creek and the N. E.
branch of Perkiomen. 10 miles N. N. W. from

Salford, Upper, Pa., Montgomery co. A town-
ship adjacent to Lower Salford, and W. from the
N. E. branch of Perkiomen.

Salina, N. Y., Onondaga co. 144 miles W.
from Albany. The township of this name em-
braces the region around Onondaga Lake, and
the celebrated salt springa of the state of New
York. Portions of the tei'ritory upon the margin
of the lake, where the springs exist, are reserved
as the property of the state. The villages of
Salina, Syracuse, Liverpool, and Geddes are all
within this township, and are all places at which
salt is extensively manufactured. The village
of Salina is situated on the E. border of the lake,
about l£ mile N. from Syracuse. It was for-
merly the principal village, but is now over-
shadowed by the growth of Syracuse, and has
virtually become almost blended with it. The
salt manufacture commenced at this place; the
earliest record of its being made, to any extent,
being in 1787, when 10 bushels were made in a
day. The great salt spring is here, which mainly
supplies the works at Liverpool and Syracuse, as
well as at Salina. The brine is six times and a
half stronger than sea water. The water is forced
into an elevated reservoir, at the rate of about
300 gallons a minute, whence it is distributed.
The manufacture at this place and Liverpool is
carried on wholly by boiling, by which process the
fine salt is produced. At Syracuse and Geddes
the coarse salt is produced, by solar evapora-
tion. For other important statistics of this man-
ufacture, see

The manufacture of flour is also carried on
extensively at Salina village, by a water power
from the Oswego Canal. There are likewise an
extensive furnace and machine shop, and other
manufactures where the power employed is that
of steam.

Saline County, As., c. h. at Benton. Bounded
N. by Perry and Pulaski counties, E. by Jeffer-
son, S. by Dallas, and
W. by Hot Springs co.
Drained by Hurricane Creek, and watered on its
S. W. border by Saline River.

Saline County, Is., c. h. at Raleigh.

Saline County, Mo., c. h. at Marshall. Bounded
N. by the Missouri River, separating it from
Carroll and Chariton counties, E. by Howard and
Cooper, S. by Pettis, and W. by Lafayette co.
Drained by La Mine River. Surface undulating;
soil of excellent quality.

Salines, Mo., St. Genevieve co. A village, 4
miles below St. Genevieve. Extensive salt works
are in its vicinity.

Salisbury, Ct., Litchfield co. The Housatonic
and Salmon Rivers give this town a great and
constant water power. The surface of Salisbury
is formed of lofty elevations and deep valleys;
but the soil is excellent for all sorts of grain and
pasturage. The valleys are generally limestone,
and the hills granite.

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