Gazetteer of the State of Maine With Numerous Illustrations, by Geo J Varney
BOSTON: PUBLISHED BY B. B. RUSSELL, 57 CORNHILL. 1882. Public domain image from
THE STATE OF MAINE.
ged ravines; by which circumstance it is rendered possible to use the
waters over and over again at the various falls between the source and
This great number of ponds and lakes so generally diffused add
greatly to the beauty of our scenery, while the purity of the water—
often supplied by springs as well as surface streams—contributes vastly
to both physical and moral health. (See principal lakes and ponds
under their respective names.)
The State of Maine lies between 43° 6' and 47° 27' 33" N.
latitude and betwmen 66° 56' 48" and 71° 6' 41" W. longitude.
The 45th parallel of latitude crosses the State within thirty miles of
its geographical centre. Its position is thus almost equi-distant betwixt
the equator and the pole, from which results a moderate temperature
and variable winds. They prevail successively for a longer or shorter
time from every quarter of the compass, bringing therefrom every
variety of heat and cold, and of moisture and dryness. The current
rarely prevails from one point of the compass for more than three days
successively ; and therefore, while the changes are often quite sudden,
neither hot nor cold, wet nor dry, weather prevails for many days in
succession in ordinary seasons. It results also that the rains are usually
gentle, occupying not unfrequently several days for the deposition of a
single inch of water. The sea-fogs of the dog-days, if they do not
moisten the soil, impart a grateful coolness to the atmosphere.
The mean annual temperature of the northern third of the State
from the observations of seventeen years is 38°.55; the mean of the
southern two-thirds from observations in every section of from six to
sixty-six years, is 43°.21 ; the mean for the whole State being 40°.88.
This temperature for a region situated on the 45th parallel is relatively
low. The mean summer temperature for the northern third of the
State is 62.°19; for the southern two-thirds, it is 62°.18 ; and for
State average, 62°.185.
In comparing Maine with the interior districts of the continent in
substantially the same latitude it appears that its summer temperature
is lower by over twenty per cent, of their temperature, reckoning from
the freezing point of water. The mean winter temperature of the
northern third of Maine is 14°.01; of the southern two-thirds, 22°.90;
the mean for the whole State, 18°.45. The mean winter temperature
of districts west of Maine in the same latitude by observation at many
points ranging from Buidington, Vermont, to Fort Ripley, Minnesota,
is 18°.53. The winter in Maine, therefore, is not so severe as in the
corresponding latitudes in the interior.
The mean, summer rainfall in the State is placed in the Hydro-
graphic Survey at 11-13 inches; while the fall at thirty stations in the
whole extent of the United States outside of Maine is 10-60 inches.
The winter (three months) fall of moisture in the State, including rain,
snow and sleet, is placed at 10-13 inches, reduced to liquid. The mean
annual depth of snow in Maine is 83.02 inches. This amount of new-
fallen snow corresponds to 6.91 inches of water. The total downfall
for the four months and a half which cover the usual actual limit of
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