This county was formed from Tioga, March 28,1806.1 Owego and
Berkshire were annexed to Tioga co. March 21,1822. It is situated
near the center of the s. border of the State, centrally distant 110 mi.
from Albany, and contains 706 sq. mi. Its surface is greatly diver¬
sified, consisting of rolling and hilly uplands, broad river intervales,
and the narrow valleys of small streams. The hills extend from the
Penn, line northerly through the eo. They are divided into 3
general ranges by the valleys of the Susquehanna and Chenango
Rivers. The first range lying e. of the Susquehanna forms the e.
border of the co. Its highest summits are 400 tos700 feet above the
Delaware and 1,400 to 1,700 feet above tide. The declivities of the
hills are usually steep, and the summits spread out into a broad
and hilly upland. This ridge is divided by the deep ravines of a large number of small streams;
and in several places it rises into peaks. The second ridge lies in the great bend of the Susque¬
hanna, and is bounded by the valleys of that river and the Chenango. The highest summits are
300 to 5004eet above the Susquehanna and 1,200 to 1,400 feet above tide. The hills are generally
bounded by gradual slopes, and the summits are broad, rolling uplands. The southern portion of
this ridge is high above the valleys; but toward the n. the hilly character subsides into that of
a fine tolling region. The third ridge lies w. of Chenango and Susquehanna Rivers. Its summits
are a little less in elevation than those of the second ridge; and the general characteristics of the
two regions are nearly the same. The wide valley of the Susquehanna divides it into two distinct
parts, the southern of which is more hilly than the northern. The hills in the central and western
parts of the 'co. are rounded and arable to their summits. The narrow valleys that break the
continuity of the ridges are usually bordered by gradually sloping hillsides.
The rocks of this co. all belong to the Chemung and Catskiil groups. The former—consisting of
slaty sandstone and shales-—occupy all the n. and w. portions of the co.; and the latter—consisting
of gray and red sandstone, red shale, and slate—crown all the summits in the s. and w. portions.
Drift—consisting of sand, gravel, clay, and hardpan—covers a large share of the more level parts
* of the co., the rocks only cropping out upon the declivities and summits of the hills. The valleys
throughout the co. appear to have been excavated by the action of water, showing that a force
immensely greater than any now in existence must once have swept over this portion of country.
Weak brine springs were early found, extending for several mi. along the valley of Halfway
Brook, in the n. part of this co.2 Several excavations have been made for coal, but without suc-
'cess, as all the coal measures are above the highest strata of rocks found in the co.
The principal rivers are the Susquehanna,3 Delaware, Chenango, Tioughnioga,2 and Otselic.
The Susquehanna enters the co. from the n., and flows in almost a due s. direction through Coles¬
ville and Windsor to the Great Bend in the State of Penn., whence, turning n., it again enters the co.
in Conklin, flows through that town in a n. w. direction, and thence westerly to the w. border of the
co. In the upper course of this river the valley is narrow and bordered by high and steep declivi¬
ties ; but further w. it expands into broad intervales bordered by gradually sloping hillsides. The
whole valley is celebrated for its beauty. The majestic river, with its strong current of clear,
sparkling water, the deep, rich intervales, and the* beautiful slopes crowned with forests, all to¬
gether form a landscape rarely equaled for beauty and quiet repose. The Delaware forms a small
portion of the e. boundary. It flows through a deep,- rocky valley bordered by steep and often
Onondaga brine, and that, to obtain water of the same degree
of saltness, all that was necessary would be to bore to the geo¬
graphical level of those wells. Sulphur springs have been
observed ih Nanticoke, 14 mi. from Binghamton, and at Be Ilona.
8 Called by the Indians Ga-wa-no-wa-na-neh, at the Great
4 Indian name, O-nanhio-gi-is'ka, Shagbark hickory.
Named from John Broome, of N. Y., then Lieut. Gov. of the
State. For the compliment Lt. Gov. Broome presented the co.
with a handsomely executed silver seal, appropriately designed
by himself, emblematical of the name.
operators was, that the salt came from the same source as the