Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 209
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The average number of inmates is 130, supported at a weekly cost of 44 cts. each. A school is
taught 6 to 8 months in the year. The buildings are poor and dilapidated and are destitute of
proper accommodations and means of ventilation.


The N. Y. & Erie R. R. extends through Hanover and Sheridan and terminates at Dunkirk.
This road opens a direct communication with New York, and, taken in connection with the con¬
necting railroads and vessels upon the lake, is one of the most important of the great thoroughfares
between the Atlantic seaboard and the Yalley of the Mississippi. The amount of freight carried
over the road is immense; and the business connected with it gives employment to thousands of
men. The Buffalo & Erie R. R. extends along the lake through Hanover, Sheridan, Pomfret,
Portland, Westfield, and Ripley. This forms another link in the great chain of Western travel,
and connects with the Erie R. R. at Dunkirk and with the N. Y. Central at Buffalo. The Atlantic
and Great Western R. R. extends through the s. part of the co., connecting Jamestown with the
N. Y. & Erie R. R. at Salamanca.1

Nine weekly newspapers are now published in the co.2

In 1782 a party of British and Indians, with a train of artillery and other munitions of war,
spent the months of June and July around Chautauqua Lake in constructing canoes and making
other preparations to navigate Allegany River in a contemplated attack upon “
Fort Pitt,” near

1 The surveys of this k. r. have been made, and it is completed
to Jamestown.

2 The Chautauque.Gazette, the first paper published in the co.,

was staft-ted at fredonia in Jan. 1817, by Jas. Percival. It
was afterward issued by Carpenter & Hull, and by Jas.
Hull, until 1822, when it was suspended. In 1823 it was
revived by Jas. Hull, and continued until 1826, when it
was united with the People’s Gazette and its name was
changed to

The Fredonia Gazette. It was issued a short time by Hull &
Snow, when it was removed to Dunkirk by Mr. Hull
and changed to

The Dunkirk Gazette. In a -few months it was removed to West¬
field and united with The Chautauque Phoenix.

The People’s Gazette was started at f orestville in 1824 by Wm.
S. Snow. In 1826 it was removed to fredonia and
united with The Chautauque Gazette.

The Chautauque Eagle was commenced at Mayville in May, 1819,
by Robt. J. Curtis, and was continued about 1 year.
The Fredonia Censor was commenced in 1821 by Henry

C. frisbee, who continued its publication for 17 years.
In 1838 it passed into the hands of E. Winchester, and
was published by him 2 years and by R. Cunnington 1
year. In 1841 it was bought by W. M. McKinstry, and
it is now published by W. McKinstry
& Bro.

The Western Star was started at Westfield in June, 1826, by
Harvey Newcomb, and was discontinued after 2 years.
It was soon after revived, as
The Chautauque Phoenix, by Hull &' Newcomb. In 1831 its
name was changed to
The American Eagle, and it was issued by G. W. Newcomb. In
1838 it was changed to
The Westfield Courier, and was issued a short time by G.W. Bliss.
Jamestown Journal was commenced in June,
1826, by Adolphus fletcher, and was continued by him
until 1846, It was then issued by John W. fletcher,
a son of the original proprietor, for 2 years, when it
passed into the hands of f. W. Palmer, who continued
at the head of the establishment until 1858, having had
in the mean time associated with him as partners francis
P. Bailey, Ebenezer P. Upham, and C. D. Sackett. It is
now issued by Sackett & Bishop.

The Chautauque Republican was started at Jamestown in 1828
by Morgan Bates. Richard K. Kellogg, Lewis C. Todd,
Clia3. McLean, Alfred Smith, and Wm. H. Cutler were
successively interested in its publication until 1833, when
it passed into the hands of S. S. C. Hamilton and its
name was changed to
The Republican Banner. It was soon after removed to Mayville,
and in a few months was discontinued.

The Genius of Liberty was started at Jamestown in 1829 by
Lewis 0. Todd, and was continued about 2 years.

The Western Intelligencer was published at f orestville a short
time in 1833.

The Mayville Sentinel was started in 1834 by Timothy
Kibbee; and the next year it passed into the hands of
Beman Brockway, who continued it 10 years. In 1845
it was sold to John f. Phelps, by whom it is still issued,
The Chautauque Whig was started at Dunkirk in Aug. 1834, by
Thompson & Carpenter. About 1844 its name was
changed to

The Dunin rk Beacon, and it was discontinued a short time after¬

The Westfield Lyceum, started in 1835, was issued a short time
by Sheldon & Palmer.

The Western Democrat and Literary Inquirer was started at
fredonia in 1835 by Wm. Verrinder. It was successively
issued by Randall, Crosby
& Co. and Arba K. Maynard,

and by the latter it was removed to Van Buren Harbor
in 1837 and issued as
The Van Buren Times. It soon after passed into the hands of
W. H. Cutler, and was continued about 2 ,’cars. • ‘
The Western Farmer was started at Westfield in 1855 by Bliss &
Knight, and was continued about 2 years.

The Settler was issued a short time in 1840 from the fredonia
Censor office by E. Winchester.

The Westfield Advocate was commenced in May, 1841, and was
discontinued in a few months.

The Westfield Messenger was started in Aug. 1841, by C. J. J. &
T. Ingersoll. In 1851 it passed into the hands of Edgar
W. Dennison and was changed to
The Westfield Transcript. In 1856 Buck & Wilson became its
proprietors, and continued it about 1 year.

The Panama Herald was started at Panama in Aug. 1846, by
Dean & Hurlbut. Stewart
& Pray afterward became
proprietors, and continued it until 1848.

The Frontier Express was started in June, 1846, by Cutler,
Cottle & Perham. In 1849 it was changed to
The Fredonia Express, and was published by J. P. Cobb & Co.,
and afterward by T. A. Osborn & Co. In 1850 it was
changed to

The Chautauque Union, and was published a short time by E. f.

The Liberty Star was started at Jamestown in 1847 by Harvey

A. Smith. In 1849 it passed into the hands of Adolphus
fletcher and was changed to
The Morthern Citizen. In 1853 John W. fletcher became pro¬
prietor ; and in 1855 it was changed to
Tlie Chautauqua Democrat, under which name it is
now issued by Adolphus fletcher and Jas. Parker.

The Silver Creek Mail was started at Silver Creek in 1848 by
John C. Van Duzen. In 1852 it was changed to
The Home Register, and was published by Jas. Long. In 1854
Samuel Wilson became proprietor, and changed it to
The Silver Creek Gazette, and continued it until 1856, when it
was discontinued. In Aug. of that year it was revived, as
The Lake Shore Mirror, by H. M. Morgan; and it is
now published by Geo. A. Martin.

The Tocsin, a temperance paper, was published at Mayville by
Lloyd Mills a short time about 1845.

The Chautauque Journal was started at Dunkirk in May, 1850,
by W. L. Carpenter. In a short time its name was
changed to

The Dunkirk Journal, and it is still issued by toy
original proprietor.

The Fredonia Advertiser was started July 4,1851, by
& Shepard. It is now published by Levi L. Pratt
& J. C. frisbee.

The Undercurrent was published at Jamestown a short time in
1851-52 by Harvey A. Smith.

The Jamestown Herald was started in Aug. 1852, by Dr. Asaph
Rhodes, In 1853 Joseph B. Nessel became proprietor,
removed it to Ellington Center, and changed its name to
The Ellington Luminary. It was discontinued in 1856.

The Phitomathian Exponent was issued at Ellington hy the
students of the academy in 1852.

The Westfleld Republican was commenced April 25,
1855, by M. C. Rice
& Co., by wbom it is still continued.
The Botanic Medical Journal was published, a short time at

The Pantheon was published at fredonia a short time.

The Western Argus was started at Westfield in 1857 by John f.
Young. In about 1 year it was removed to Dunkiik,
and changed to

The Dunkirk Press and Argus, edited by Jas. S. Sherwood. It
is now discontinued.



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