Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 242
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The first settlements were made in the n. part of the co., under the Dutch Government. The e.
border was settled chiefly by squatters from New England. Livingston Manor1 was patented July
22, 1686, and first settled by tenants about the beginning of the last century. The most important
settlement was made by German Palatinates, in 1710, upon a tract of 6000 acres—now constituting
the principal part of Germantown—which had been sold back to the Government by Robert Living¬
ston. The territory of Mass., under its charter, extended westward to the Pacific Ocean, and grants
were made by that colony.2 Conflicting claims gave rise to bitter contentions and riotous outbreaks.
Arrests made under Mass. warrants led to riots and bloodshed.3 Combinations were formed to
dispossess the proprietor of the Livingston Manor, which resulted in tumults and murders.4 These
difficulties continued until after the Revolution. During the Revolutionary War, and for several
years after, this section of the country was much infested by robbers, and acts of violence were of
frequent occurrence.5 The anti-rent movement of 1840-50 extended to the Livingston Manor, the
John J. Yan Rensselaer Tract, and other districts held by leasehold. In Dec. 1844, the Governor
ordered out 7 companies of militia to assist the sheriff of this co. in the discharge of his duties.
Most of the leases which had then been issued were for 1, 2, or 3 lives; but the anti-rent difficulties
have led to the policy of conveying the title in fee as rapidly as circumstances will admit.6

A1VCRAM—was formed from Livingston, March 19, 1803,7 as “ Gallatin.” Its name was
changed March 25, 1814, and Gallatin was taken off in 1830. It is the s.
e. corner town of the co.

Richard L. Cross in 1816, and W. R. Stebbins in 1821.
It was discontinued in 1824.

The Columbia Magazine was published at Hudson at an early
date, by Rev. John Chester.

The Spirit of the Forum and Hudson Remarker was published in
1817, by a literary association.

The Columbia Republican was started inAug.1818,
by Solomon Wilbur. In 1820 it passed into the hands
of Ambrose L. and Allen Jordan, and is now published
by Wm. Bryan. 1'or a year or two, about 1S35-36, it
was issued as

The Columbia Republican and Hudson City Advertiser.

Tlie Hudson Gazette wasi established in 1824, by Peleg
G. Sturteyant, and is now published by Williams &
Brother, John W. Edmonds, Ed.

The Messenger of Peace was started in 1824, at Hudson, by
Richard Carrique, and continued 1 year.

The Rural Repository, semi-mo., was commenced, June 12,1824,
by Wm. B. Stoddard, and continued until 1851.
Columbia and Greene Co. Envoy was started at Hudson, in 1831,
by Edwin G. Lindsley, and continued 2 years.

The Diamond, semi-mo., was published at Hudson, in 1833, by

G. P. Stone.

The Magnolia, semi-mo., was published at Hudson, in 1834, by
P. D. Carrique.

The Hudson Flail was published by J. R. S. Van Vliet, during
the campaign of 1840.

The Columbia Washingtonian was started at Hudson in 1842, by
J. R. S. Van Vliet. The paper changed hands several
times, and was changed to
The Daily Evening^ Star, Dec. 28,1847, by Alex. N. Webb. It is
now published as
The Hudson Star, da. and w.

The Columbia Democrat was commenced at Chatham Pour Cor¬
ners, in 1847, by-

The Temperance Palladium was published at Hudson in 1851,
by J. W. Dutcher.

The Hudson Daily flews was published in 1855, by Richard Van

The Kinderhook Sentinel was established at Kinderhook in June,
1825, by Peter Van Schaack, and in Jan. 1832, was
changed to

Columbia’s Sentinel. In 1834 it passed into the hands of John
V. A. Hoes, but about 18 months afterward it reverted
to Van Schaack. It has since been changed to the
Rough Notes, and since 1854 it has been published at
Kinderhook, by P. H. Van Vleck.

Pie Valatie Weekly Times was published in 1853, by H. N. Hopkins.
The Equal Rights Advocate was started at Chatham Pour Cor¬
ners, by an anti-rent association. In 1848 it was re¬
moved to Hudson and changed to
The Democratic Freeman. It was discontinued in 1855-56.

The Columbia Co. Journal was published at Chatham Four Cor¬
ners in 1850, by Philip H. Ostrander.

The Journal of Materia Medica was commenced
at New Lebanon in 1857; H. A. Tilden, pub., Joseph
Bates, M. D., ed.
t The patent of this manor conferred upon Robert Livingston,
the patentee, feudal privileges, and imposed an annual quitrent
of 28 shiRmgs. The manor contained 160,240 acres, and in¬
eluded nearly all the present towns of Clermont, Germantown,
Livingston, Gallatin, Taghkanick, Ancram, and Copake. It
of 2 purchases: the Livingston purchase, obtained of
the Mohegan Indians in July, 1683, and the Taghkanick pur¬
chase, obtained Aug. 10,1685. They were confirmed by Gov.
Dongan, the former, Nov. 4,1684, and the latter, Aug. 12,1685.
In 1701 there were hut 4 or 5 houses on the manor. Prom and
after 1716 the manor was represented by a member in General
Assembly. Before his death—which took place in 1728—Robert
Livingston bequeathed to his son Robert that part of the manor
now included in the town of Clermont, and the residue to his
eldest son, Philip. The latter was succeeded by Robert Living¬
ston, Jr.; and in 1792 the land e. of the post road was divided
between Walter, Robert C., John, and Henry Livingston, the
devisees of Robert Livingston, Jr., according to the provisions
of his will.—
Sutherland?s Deduction of the Title of the Manor
of Livingston; Doc. Hist.
Ill, Colonial Hist.

In the patent and upon the maps of the manor, several places
are designated by their Indian names, viz.,—

Ahashawaghkick, a bill in n.w. corner, on Mass. line. Aca-
a flat or rock in n. part of North East, (Dutchess co.)
Kachwawyick, a place w. of a certain mountain. Kickua, or
Kickpa, one of 3 plains near Roeliff Jansens Creek. Mananosick,
hill in w. part, on or near Mass. line. Mawanaguasick, stone
heaps on n. line, “where Indians have laid several heaps of
stones together, by an ancient custom amongst them.”
a “ cripple bush” on s. line of patent. Mawichnak, a
flat on both sides of a creek where it joins R. Jansens Creek.
Minmissichtanock, a piece of land n. of Roeliff Jansens Creek.
Nowanagquasick, on n. line of manor, (Sauthier’s map.) JVacha-
creek tributary to Twastawekak. Nichankooke,
one of 3 plains near Roeliff Jansens Creek. Pottkook, patented
to K. Van Rensselaer, s. of Kinderhook.
Quisichkook, a small
creek N. of Roeliff Jansens Creek.
Saaskahampka, or Swaska-
a place opposite Saugerties, Ulster co. Sacahka, on N.
line of the town of North East.
Sankhenak, Roeliff Jansens
Skaankook, a creels. Tbwastawekak, or Twastawekak, a
Wachanekaisek, a small stream opposite Catskill Creek.
Wahankasick, near Roeliff Jansens Creek, (Sauthier’s map.)
Wawyachtonock, a place. Whichquqpuhbau, s. W. corner of

2 With the view of settling their claims upon the Hudson, tho
Boston Government, in March, 1672, sent John Paine to New
York to solicit permission to pass and repass by water. The
application was received with cold civility, and the subject
referred home for the decision of his Majesty. Gov. Lovelace
improved the occasion to remind the Mass. people of the distrust
witli which they had received the commissioners sent over in
1664, and intimated that their application under other circum¬
stances might have been differentiy received
.—General Entries,
IV. 177, 178. See. Office.

8 Doc. Hist. III., 754.

4 In 1791 the sheriff of the ch. was murdered by an armed
mob while in the discharge of his official duty.

6 A party of rangers was organized to suppress these; and
under the act of May 11,1780, £1500 was raised to defray the
expenses thus incurred.

6 Assem. Doc. 156; 1846, p. 2.

1 This town was included in the Livingston Manor. The line
bordering upon Taghkanick was altered March 25, 1814. A
narrow triangular tract of about 1000 acres, in the extreme E.
part of the town, known as “
Boston Corner?’ formerly belonged
to the town of Mt. Washington, Berkshire co., Mass. The
Taghkanick Mts. extend along the e. border of the tact, and
form an almost impassable barrier between this and the re¬
maining parts of that town. Thus entirely isolated from the


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