248 COLUMBIA COUNTY.
this last stream flows through a broad and fertile valley, but near the Hudson its banks are steep
and rocky. The soil is a fertile, sandy loam. Johnstown^ (Livingston p.o.,) situated near
the center of the town, contains 1 church, a parochial school, and 28 houses. Glencoe Mills,
(p.v.,) on Claverack Creek, contains a free chapel, 2 sawmills, and 16 houses. Bakers Mills,
(p. o.,) on Roeliff Jansens Kil, contains a woolen factory, 2 paper mills, a gristmill, and 10
dwellings. Elizaville, (p.o.,) Bine Store, and Linlilhgo are hamlets. Settlement
commenced soon after the patent was granted.1 There are 4 churches in town.2
NEW LEBANON—was formed from Canaan, April 21, 1818. It is the n.e. corner town
of the co.* The surface consists of steep hills separated by broad, irregular valleys. The Taghka-
nick Mts., upon the e., separate this town from Mass. The Wyomanock or Lebanon Creek is the
principal stream. The soil is a gravelly and slaty loam intermixed with clay. The valleys are
generally narrow and the hills arable to their summits. Lebanon Spring's, (New Lebanon
Springs p.o.,) in the e. part of the town, is celebrated for its thermal springs.3 It contains 2
churches, 4 hotels, a female seminary, and a gristmill. Pop. 278. TiMens (New Lebanon p. o.)
contains 1 church, a barometer and thermometer manufactory, a laboratory for the preparation of
medicinal extracts,4 and 35 houses. New Lebanon Center (p.v.) contains a gristmill, saw¬
mill, tannery, and 22 houses; Mofifatts Store, (p.v.,) 1 church and 23 houses; and New
Britain, (p.o.,) 1 church and 6 houses. In the e. part of the town, about 2 mi. s. of Lebanon
Springs, is a large Shaker community.5 The first settlement was made about 1760, by immigrants
mostly from Mass. and Conn.6 There are 8 churches in town.7
STOCKPORT—was formed from Hudson, Ghent, and Stuyvesant, April 30, 1833. It lies
upon the Hudson, n. of the center of the co. The surface consists of a high table land, rising from
the river in bluffs and descending with a moderate slope toward the e. Kinderhook and Claverack
Creeks unite near the center of the town. The valleys of these streams are narrow and their banks
often steep and rocky. Near Stottsville are 4 mineral springs, known as the Columbia Springs.8
Stockport, (p.v.,) situated at the junction of Kinderhook and Claverack Creeks, contains 3
churches, several manufactories,9 and 44 dwellings. Ckittendens Fails contains 1 church,
2 paper mills, and 14 dwellings, and Stottsville 2 woolen factories and 21 dwellings. C©«
lumbiavllle10 (Stockport station on the Hudson R. R. R.) is situated on the Hudson. This town
was settled at an early period by the Dutch. There are 4 churches in town.11
STUYVESANT 12—was formed from Kinderhook, April 21, 1823, and a part of Stockport was
taken off in 1833. It is the n. w. corner town of the co., is situated on the bank of the Hudson,
and includes the adjacent islands e. of the middle of the river. The surface is generally level,
except along the river bank, where it is broken by ravines and low hills. Kinderhook Creek
crosses the s. part of the town. The soil is generally clayey, but in some places it is a light, sandy
loam, stuyvesant Falls, (p.v.,) on Kinderhook Creek, contains 1 church, several manufac¬
tories,13 and 35 houses. Stuyvesant Landing, (Stuyvesant p.o.,) on the Hudson, contains 1
church, a flouring mill, a foundry, 2 coal yards, a lumber yard, and 34 houses. It is a steamboat
Beatty’s map of 1714, the manorhouse and mill are
located within this town, near the Hudson, and the residences
of families named Witbeck, Claas, and Brusie near Claverack
2 2 Ref. Prot. D., Evang. Luth., M. E.
8 The spring is 10 feet in diameter and 4 feet deep, and dis¬
charges 16 barrels of- water per minute. The water is wholly
tasteless, and has a temperature of 73° at all seasons. Accord¬
ing to an analysis made by Dr. Meade, 1 pint of water contains
1.25 grs. solid matter, as follows:—0.25 grs. chloride of calcium,
0.44 grs. chloride of sodium, 0.19 grs. carbonate of lime, and 0.37
grs. sulphate of lime. Bubbles of gas constantly rise from the
bottom of the spring, giving it the appearance of boiling. This
gas is composed of 89.4 parts nitrogen and 10.6 parts oxygen,
and is given out in the proportion of 5 cubic inches from a pint
of the water. So great is the volume of water discharged that
it not only supplies several baths, but 2 or 3 mills are kept run¬
ning by it both summer and winter.—L. C. Beck’s Report, 1848,
p. 48, and Geology 1st Dist., p. 105. The medicinal properties of
these waters were first brought to the notice of the public by
J as. Hitchcock. There are several similar springs of less volume
in the vicinity.
4 Tilden & Co. have under cultivation 40 acres of medicinal
plants,—chiefly dandelion, hyoscyamus, lettuce, belladonna, stra¬
monium, yellow dock, burdock, poppies, digitalis, aconite, hore-
hound, wormwood, and valerian. They also use large quantities
of conium, gathered from the surrounding country, as well as
imported medicinal herbs and roots. Sixty persons are employed
in the'preparation of their extracts.
* There are 500 to 600 persons in this community. They own
about 2000 acres of land in this State, besides a considerable
tract in Mass. They have a large meeting house, a laboratory
furnished with steam power, a gristmill, 4 sawmills, 2 machine
shops, 8 dwellings, and several other buildings. They are prin¬
cipally engaged in farming, and in preparing extracts, roots,
herbs, botanic medicines, and garden seeds. They also manu¬
facture brooms, sieves, and fancy baskets. About 200,000 lbs.
of medicinal articles and garden seeds are put up annually.
The neatness of their grounds and premises is prdverbial.
6 Among the first settlers were families named Gilbert, Cor¬
nell, King, Skinner, Mudge, Gurnsey, Jones, Waddams, Sanford,
and Patchin. An inn was kept at Lebanon Springs for several
years before the close of the Revolutionary War. The house
is still standing, and is supposed to be nearly a century old.
4 3 M. E,, Bap., Christian, Presb., R. C., and a Shaker meeting
8 The waters of these springs have never been analyzed. A
hotel and bathing houses have recently been erected near them,
and they are now much frequented.
9 2 cotton factories, a matrass factory, machine shop, and
sash and blind factory.
1° Columbiaville was incorp. Feb. 21,1812, but the act of in¬
corporation was repealed April 20, 1833. It was formerly a
manufacturing place of considerable importance. In 1813 it had
a cotton factory of 1500 spindles, 2 paper mills, 4 cording mills,
2 fulling mills, together with grist, saw, and plaster mills.
14 M. E., Presb., Prot. E., and Univ.
42 Named in hon'or of Gov. Peter Stuyvesant.
48 3 cotton factories, a woolen factory, a gristmill, sawmill,
machine shop, and an agricultural implement factory.