300 ESSEX COUNTY.
military stores, were captured by a party of “ Green Mountain Boys’' under Capt. Ebenezer Allen.
In 1780, Gen. Haldeman, with a party of British soldiers, advanced to Ticonderoga and occupied
it for some time. Maj. Carleton here made a diversion in favor of Sir John Johnson, by an attack
upon Eorts Anne and George. In 1781 the British fleet several times entered the lake, but retired
without accomplishing any thing.1 In 1784, Gilliland returned to his ruined settlement and
endeavored to retrieve his waning fortunes. Relinquishing his ideas of manorial greatness, he
offttred his lands for sale; but adverse lawsuits and treacherous friends soon dissipated the rem¬
nant of his wealth and brought his existence to a miserable close.2 The progress of settlement at
first was not very rapid. In 1795 there were in Clinton co.—then embracing Essex—but 624 legal
voters, From that time forward, however, settlement progressed with great rapidity, and several
public roads were opened to facilitate it.3 Soon after the war an arsenal was erected at Elizabeth¬
town. During the patriot excitement it was robbed; and since, it has been sold.
CHESTERFIELD—was formed from Willsborough, Feb. 20, 1802. It lies in the n.e.
corner of the co., upon the shore of Lake Champlain. Its surface is broken and mountainous.
The Jay Mountains, a northern spur of the Adirondack Range, extend northward through the
w. part. This range is a continuous, high, rocky ridge, without a single pass, forming an almost
impassable barrier between Chesterfield and Jay. The main Adirondack Range extends through
the center of the town from s. w. to sr. e., ending at Trembleau Point, a high, rocky bluff 1200 to
1500 feet above the surface of the lake. Bosworth Mountain and Poke-a-Moonshine, each
attaining an elevation of about 3000 feet, are the two principal peaks within the limits of the
town. The s. e. part is hilly. The n. e. part is a rolling table land, with a light, sandy, and
unproductive soil. There are several lakes in the interior, the principal of which are Augur and
Butternut Ponds. -Not more than one half of the surface is susceptible of cultivation. The
principal valuable minerals that have been found are iron, graphite, and a beautiful light brown
marble. Schuyler Island, in the lake, belongs to this town. The Au Sable River, upon the n.
border, affords a large amount of hydraulic power, and some very attractive scenery. The falls
at Birmingham have a descent of 90 feet, including the rapids above the main fall.4 Keese-
ville (p.v.) is situated on both sides of the Au Sable River, its northern part being in Clinton co.5
It is the seat of extensive iron works and other important manufactures. The iron from the ore
is made into nails, horseshoes, merchant iron, edge tools, and machinery. The village has a bank,
an academy, and 5 churches. Pop. according to last census, 2569, of which 1370 were in Chester¬
field. Port Rent,6 (p.v.,) on Lake Champlain, contains 25 houses; Port Douglas 5;
Port Rendall 6; and Birmingham Falls 6. Matthew Adgate and sons came into
town about 1792.7 The first church was Cong.; and the first preacher was Rev. Cyrus Comstock.3
CROWS! POINT—was formed March 23, 1786, and named from the old French fortress9
situated on the lake. Elizabethtown was taken off in 1798, Schroon and Ticonderoga in 1804, and
Moriah in 1808. It lies upon the shore of Lake Champlain, s. e. of the center of the co. A
strip of nearly level land, about 4 mi. wide, extends along the lake shore. The central part of the
town is broken, the hills gradually rising into the Kayaderosseras Mts. in the w. Putnams Creek,
the principal stream, takes its rise in the ponds and lakes among the mountains, and upon its
course are numerous falls, furnishing an abundance of water power. The soil upon the lake
shore is a deep, rich, clayey loam; and in the interior it is of a light, sandy nature. Abundance
the first bridge and sawmill and kept the first store, in
1802. It was first called “Long Chute’’ About 1812 the pro¬
perty came into the hands of Richard and Oliver Keese and
John W. Anderson, who erected a woolen factory and iron
works in 1813. The name was first changed to “ Andersons
Falls,” and afterwards to Keeseville. See Clinton co., town
of Au Sable.
6 Both Port Kent and Keeseville are centers of extensive and
important iron districts.
1 Alva Bosworth, Elihu Briggs, Edward Palmer, Levi Cooley,
Dr. Clark, John and Benj. Macomber, John Page, and -
Norton, were among the first settlers. The first child born
was Thos. Raugnam, and the first death that of Abel
8 The census reports 5 churches; F. W. Bap., M. E., Presb.,
Prot. E., and R. C.
9 The point which contains the ruins of this fortress is sup¬
posed to have been an important commercial mart previous
to the French War; but now it contains only a single farm
For a long time there was a great mystery connected with
these movements, which was afterward explained by the publi¬
cation of the negotiations which took place between the Gov. of
Canada and the “ Vt. Council of Safety.”
For some time he was confined in N.Y. for debt; but, regain¬
ing his freedom, he returned to the scene of his former enter¬
prise. Here meeting with new disappointments and treachery,
and becoming partially deranged by his misfortunes, he wan¬
dered into the wilderness and perished of cold and exposure.
8 Among these public roads were one from Willsborough
Falls to Peru; another, known as the “Old State Road,” from
Sandy Hill, along the Schroon Valley, to Canada Line; and
another across the s. w. corner of the county from Canton to
Chester. In 1790, Platt Rogers established a ferry across the
lake, at Basin Harbor. He also built several roads, and a bridge
over the Boquet at Willsborough Falls. For constructing
these and other public works, Rogers and his associates received
p. grant of 73,000 acres of unappropriated land.