Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 345
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IIERILfMER1 —was formed from Kingsland District, March 7, 1788. A part of Palatine
(Montgomery co.) was annexed in 1791. Norway and Schuyler were taken off in 1792, a part of
Newport in 1806, and a part of Little Falls in 1829. A part was annexed to Schuyler in 1808, and
restored in 1811. It lies on the
n. bank of the Mohawk, near the center of the settled portions of
the co. A wide intervale extends along the river, and from it the-surface gradually rises to the n.
line of the town. West Canada Creek flows s. through near the center, dividing the uplands into
two distinct ridges. The Hasenclever Mts., w. of the creek, are 600 to 800 ft. above the Mohawk.
The soil upon the hills is a gravelly loam, and in the valleys a deep, fertile alluvium. Her-
kimer,2 (p.v.,) upon the Mohawk, w. of the mouth of West Canada Creek, was incorp.
April 6, 1807. It contains the co. buildings, 3 churches, a bank, newspaper office, paper
mill,* and gristmill. Pop. 1,371. It is a station upon the N. Y. C. R. R. Eatosivlli© (p.o.)
is a hamlet, in the
n. e. corner, on the line of Fairfield and Little Falls. The early history of the
town is blended with that of German Flats, of which it formed a part until its organization as a
town. The first settlements were made by Palatinates, under the patronage of Gov. Hunter, in
1722.3 It had its share of suffering during the Revolution; and all the patriot families that re¬
mained during the war were those sheltered by Fort Dayton. This fortress stood upon a point of
the stone ridge about 30 rods above the present site of the courthouse. After the destruction of
Fort Schuyler by flood and fire, in May, 1781, Forts Dayton and Herkimer became the frontier
defenses of the Mohawk Yalley.4 After the war, many of the Indians and tories who had been
actively engaged in hostilities returned to the settlements; but they were received by the settlers
in a way little calculated to inspire sentiments of friendship, and the greater part emigrated to
more congenial places.5 The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed at an early period, by Rev.
A. Rosegrantz; but the precise date has been lost.6

EITCHFIEED 7—was formed from German Flats, Feb. 5, 1796. A part of Winfield was
taken off in 1816. It lies on the w. border of the co., s. of the Mohawk. Its surface is elevated
and moderately hilly, its mean elevation being’about 500 feet above the river. A series of ridges
in the'w. and s. are known as the “Dry Lots/’8 no water being found upon them. The streams
are small; some flow s. into the Unadilla and others
n. into the Mohawk. In the e. part is a
eulphur spring.9 Eitcllfield (p.v.) contains 1 church and about 15 houses; Cedar Lake
(p.o.) 1 church and 9 houses; Jerusalem, a hamlet near the center, 2 churches and 7houses.
The first settlement was commenced about 1789, by Jabez Snow, on Snow Hill.10 The first reli¬
gious services were held in 1794; Rev. Spaulding was the first preacher.11

EITTEE FAEES—was formed from Fairfield, Herkimer, and German Flats, Feb. 16, 1829.
It lies in the interior of the co,, s. of the center. Its surface is a broken upland, divided by the

died of his wounds the next day. The two little boys were re¬
turned after the war.—
Benton’s Herkimer.

6 John Adam Hartman, an active and successful ranger, was
engaged in perilous service through the war. Soon after the
peace, an Indian came into an inn, in the w. part of this town,
where Hartman was present, and, getting intoxicated, began to
boast of his exploits, and showed a tobacco pouch made from the
skin of a white child’s arm and hand, with the nails still on.
When the Indian left, Hartman found business on the same
road. They both passed into a swamp; and the Indian never
came out. In reply to questions put to him, Hartman said that
he last saw the Indian, some distance ahead, standing on a log;
and that he fell as if hurt. Hartman was tried for murder, but
was acquitted. He lived in town till his death, in the spring of
Benton’s Herkimer, p. 409.

I There are 3 churches in town; 2 M. E., Ref. Prot. D.

8 Named from Litchfield, Conn., whence many of the early
settlers came.

9 These hills have limestone ledges belonging to, the Helder¬
bergh series. These lots, 2 in number, contain about 1,600
acres each. Water is obtained by wells at great expense.

1° The Columbian Springs, in Browns Hollow, have been
brought to public notice, but have yet gained only a local repu¬

u Among the other early settlers were John Everett, Nathaniel
Ball, and Ebenezer Drury, from N. II.; and Ezekiel Goodell and

S.' Sherry, from Conn. Selah Holcomb settled 2 mi. e. of Jeru¬
salem. Wm. and Thos. Jones, Oliver Rider, Joseph Crosby, and
others, were also early settlers. The first birth was that of
Luke Andrews, in 1790; the first marriage, that of Joseph Day

and--, in the same year. Jeremiah Everett taught

the first school; Joseph Shepard kept the first inn; David Davis

kept the first store;  Talcott built the first saw-mill, and

John Littlejohn the first gristmill, in 1806-07.

12 The census reports 8 churches in town; 2 Presb., 2 M. E., 2
Univ., Bap., and Wes. Meth.


Named in honor of Gen. Nicholas Herkimer. It was intended
to apply the name to the territory including the old residence
of the General, but hy mistake it was given to this town. The
Kingsland District was one of the divisions of Tryon co. formed
March 24,1772. Its name was exchanged with that of German
Flats District, March 8,1773. It included all that portion of the
co. lying w. of Palatine District and w. of the Mohawk. This
town embraces the whole of Winner’s and a part of Burnetsfield,
Ilasenclever’s, Colden’s, and Willet’s Patents, and small por¬
tions of the Royal Grant and Glen’s Purchase.


Originally called “Stone Ridge.”


Among the early settlers were Johan Joost Petrie, Frederick
and A. M. Pell, Jury Doxtater, Nicholas Feeter, Melgert Folts,


Henry Heger, Lendert, Frederick Johan, Adam and Philip

Ilelmer, and families named Schmidt, Weaver, and Bellinger.

The first schools were German.  Robinson taught the first

English school, at the village.


Lieut. Solomon Woodworth was stationed at Fort Dayton


with a small force of Continental troops. He rendered great


service to-the settlers in this part of the valley. In the summer
of 1781, with 40 men, he went out to reconnoiter; but about 3
mi. n. of Herkimer the party fell into an Indian ambuscade, and
only 15 escaped. The commander and 20 men were killed. A
Mrs. Smith, scalped by the Indians during the war, recovered
and lived to a good old age. On the 6th of August, 1781, a party
of tories and Indians, under Donald McDonald, a Scotch refugee,
from Johnstown, made an attack upon the settlement at Shells
Bush. The inhabitants mostly fled to Fort Dayton; but John
Christian Shell and his family, consisting of his wife and 6 Sons,
took refuge in their own house, which was a strong blockhouse.


His two little .sons, twins, 8 years of age, were taken prisoners;


but the remainder of the family escaped within and secured the
entrance. In trying to force the door, McDonald was wounded,


and made prisoner. The attack continued until dark, when'the


tone's fled, with a loss of 11 killed and 6 wounded. McDonald


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