Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 375
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The s. w. part of the co. is drained by Fish Creek and its branches, and the headwaters of the
Mohawk. Salmon Kiver rises upon the
w. border, and the Oswegatchie and Indian1 Rivers take
their rise in the
n. e. The principal tributaries of Black River are Moose2 and Beaver Rivers,3
Otter,4 Independence, and Fish Creeks, and Fall Brook, on the e.; and Sugar River, Mill, Houses,
and Whetstone Creeks, Roaring Brook, Lowvilie Creek, and Deer River
5 upon the w. Several
mineral springs are found within the co
.6 Spring grains are readily cultivated; but this co. is
particularly adapted to pasturage, dairying forming the principal pursuit of the people. Droughts
seldom occur; but the uplands are noted for their deep snows. Within a few years, several exten¬
sive establishments have been erected upon Black, Moose, Beaver, and Deer Rivers, for the manufac¬
ture of leather, paper, lumber, and articles of wood. Two furnaces for the manufacture of iron
from the ore are located near the
n. border.

The county seat is located at Martinsburgh. A wooden courthouse and j ail were built here in 1810-
11, upon a site given by Gen. Martin
.7 The present clerk's office was erected by citizens of Mar¬
tinsburgh in 1847. Active efforts were made at an early day; and renewed in 1852, to obtain the
removal of the co. seat to Lowvilie, and a fine edifice was built at that place for the courts, in the
hope of securing their removal. The co. poorhouse is located upon a farm of 59 acres 1 mi. w. of
Lowvilie. The average number of inmates is about 90. The institution is well managed in regard
to economy, neatness, and the health of the inmates. The only internal improvement in the co. is
the Black River Canal, connecting Black River below Lyons Falls with the Erie Canal at Rome
From Lyons Falls the river is navigated to Carthage, a distance of 42J- mi., by small steamers.
Three newspapers are now published in the co

This co. is entirely within Macomb’s Purchase, and includes a part of Great Tract No. IV.,10
most of the Chassanis Purchase,11 WatSon’s West Tract,12 the Brantingham Tract,13 and a small
part of John Brown’s Tract
,14 on the e. side of the river: and 4 of the “Eleven Towns,”15 5 of the
Thirteen Towns of the Boylston Tract
,16 Constable’s Five Towns,17 and Inman’s Triangle18 on the w.

'The first settlers came from New England and settled at Leyden in 1794. The fame of the

forma without change; the limestone terraces rise by steep
slopes to their level summit; and the slate and shale hills ex¬
hibit the yielding character of the rocks which compose them,
by their rounded outline and the gorges which every spring
torrent has worn upon their sides.

1 Called by the Indians 0-je'quack, Nut River.

2 Indian name Te-ka'hun-di-anMo, clearing an opening.

3 Indian name-Ne-ha-sahie, crossing on a stick of timber.

4 Indian name Da-ween-net, the otter.

5 Indian name Ga-nelga-toMo, corn pounder.

® The largest of these arises from the limestone in Lowvilie,
near the line of Harrisburgh. Others rise from the slate upon
Tug Hill. All of them emit sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and
some have been used for medicinal purposes.

I The co. seat was located by the same commissioners that
were appointed for Jefferson co. Benj. Van Vleeck, Daniel
Kelly, and Jonathan Collins, by act of 1811, were appointed to
superintend the completion of these buildings. The first co.
officers were Daniel Kelly,
First Judge; Jonathan Collins, Judah
Barnes, and Solomon King,
Judges; Lewis Graves and Asa
Bray ton,
Asst. Justices; Asa Lord, Coroner; Chillus Doty,
Sheriff; Richard Coxe, Cleric; and Isaac W. Bostwick,:Surro¬

Tho Black River & Utica R. R., now finished to Boonville,
will probably be extended through the Black River Valley.

3 The Black River Gazette was established at Martinsburgh,
March 10, 1807, by James B. Robbins, and was removed
to Watertown the following year. This was the first
paper published in the State N. of Utica.

The Lewis Co. Sentinel was started at Martinsburgh, Oct. 12,
1824, by Charles Nichols, and continued 1 year.

The Martinsburgh Sentinel was commenced in 1828 by -

Pearson, and continued until March, ,1830.

Tlie Liewis County Republican was established at
Martinsburgh, in 1831 or ’32, by James Wheeler, who
sold it to Daniel S. Bailey, its present publisher, in 1837.
It was removed to Lowvilie in 1844, but has since been
returned to Martinsburgh.

The Lewis Co. Gazette w'as started at Lowvilie, in the spring of
1821, by Lewis G. Hoffman, and continued 2 years.

The Black. River Gazette was Issued at Lowvilie, Oct. 19,1825,
by Wm. L. Easton. It was sold in 1830 to J. M. Farr, by
whom it was continued a year or more.

The Leim's/ Democrat was started at Lowvilie, March 25,1834, by
Le Grand Byington, and continued 1 year.

Tlie IVortliern Journal was commenced at Lowvilie,
Feb. 14,1838, by A. W, Clark. It has frequently changed
owners, and is now published by Henry A. Phillips.
Tlie Liewis County Banner was started at Lowvilie,
Sept. 3,1856, by N. B. Sylvester, and is now published
by Henry Allgoever.

The Lewis Co. Democrat was commenced Sept. 22,1846, at Turin,

• by H. R. Lahe. It was removed to Martinsburgh in
1849 and discontinued a few weeks after.

Thee Dollar Weekly Northern Blade was started at Constable-
ville in 1854. It was changed to
The News Register in April, 1857, by Merrill & Cook, its pub¬
lishers, and was afterward removed to Carthage.

10 This tract was bought by the Antwerp Company, and em¬
braced an area of 450,950 acres. Seep. 353.

11 This tract was purchased by Pierre Chassanis in 1792, and
was supposed to contain 600,000 acres. Upon a survey being
made, it was found that the tract fell far short of this; and a
new agreement was made, April 2,1793, for 210,000 acres. A
narrow strip of this tract extended along the e. side of the river
to High Falls. The settlers of this tract were principally refrn-

is of the French Revolution. Many of them were wealthy,
titled, and highly educated, and, in consequence, were poorly
fitted for the hardships of pioneer life. Large sums of money
were expended to render the settlement successful, but the
settlers soon after returned to France and the enterprise was
abandoned. Rodolph Tillier was the first agent; and in 1800 he
was superseded by Gouverneur Morris, who appointed Richard
Coxe his agent. The first buildings were erected near the present
residence pf Francis geger.

12 James Watson purchased 61,433 acres, in 2 tracts, connected
by a narrow isthmus. The eastern tract is mostly in Herkimer


13 So called from Thomas H. Brantingham, of the city of Phila¬
delphia, who at one time held the title. It is mostly in Greig,
and contains 74,400 acres.

14 This tract, which is popularly regarded as the whole north¬
ern wilderness of New York, included 210,000 acres sold by Con¬
stable to John Julius Angerstein, and afterward conveyed to
John Brown, of Providence, R, I. It was divided into 8 town¬
ships, as follows:—

1. Industry.

5. Frugality.

6. Sobriety.

7. Economy.

8. Regularity.

2. Enterprise.

3. Perseverance.

4. Unanimity.

It has been said that all these social virtues are needed for
the settlement of this region. The first 4 townships are partly
in Lewis co.

15 Numbers 5,9,10, and 11,—now Denmark, Pinckney, Harris¬
burgh, and Lowvilie.

“6 Named from Thos. Boylston, of Boston, who held the title a
few days. Nos, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 13, now Montague, Osceola, and
parts of Martinsburgh and High Market, are in Lewis co. The
whole tract included 817,155 acres.

17 These towns were Xenophon, Flora, Lucretia, Pomona, and
Porcia, and now'form parts of Lewis, High Market, and Martins¬
burgh and the whole of Turin and West Turin.

"8 Leyden as it existed before Lewis was erected. It included
26,250 acres, forming a perfect triangle.


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