Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 429
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venient, and the establishment of all of them is so recent as to be within the memory of every adult
citizen. They consist of 5 city rail roads and 29 lines of omnibuses.1 Since the introduction of
rail roads and the multiplication of steam ferries and steamboat routes, a large number of persons
transacting business in the city have been enabled to provide residences in the country adjacent,
where they can enjoy the comforts and luxuries of a rural home without a sacrifice of business
interests. A large proportion of the inhabitants of Brooklyn, and great numbers residing within
30 mi. of the city, on Long Island and Staten Island and in the adjacent parts of Westchester
county and New Jersey, are in this manner closely identified with the business of the city, and
might in one sense be included in its population. New York and its immediate suburbs are thus
so united in interests that they virtually constitute one great metropolis, and would probably at
this time number, within a radius of 10 mi. from the City Hall, about a million and a quarter of

The institutions of New York designed to meet the intellectual and social wants of the people in
extent and variety have no equals in America; and many of them surpass all similar institutions
in the world. These institutions, noticed under special heads, are devoted to education, both-general
and special, to benevolent objects in various forms, to religion and morality, to intellectual culture,
and to the promotion of the useful and fine arts. They do not strictly all belong to the city, nor
do they adequately represent the wants of the city population. Many of the schools and other in¬
stitutions, from their peculiarities and excellence, attract great numbers from abroad; and, on
the other hand, a great number of educational institutions in the adjoining counties depend for
support almost entirely upon city patronage. A reciprocity of interests between city and country
is thus kept up in intellectual as well as in business affairs.

Hie Public School System of New York now constitutes one of the most important in¬
terests of the city, both in regard to its effect upon the social position of the people and in the
amount of its annual expenditures. There were reported, at the close of 1858, a free academy8
for the complete collegiate education of boys, 4 normal schools for the instruction of teachers, 57
ward schools, including 51 grammar schools for boys, 48 grammar schools for girls, and 55 primary
departments for both sexes; 35 primary schools, 42 evening schools, of which 23 are for males and

Roosevelt Street Ferry, from Roosevelt Street to Bridge Street,
Brooklyn, 1,450 yds., is leased to tlie Union Ferry Co. until
1867, at $3,000 per annum.

James Street Ferry is established from James Slip to South 7th
Street, Williamsburgh.

Catharine Street Ferry, from Catharine Street to Main Street,
Brooklyn, 736 yds., is leased to the Union Ferry Co. until
1863, at $16,000 per annum.

Division Avenue Ferry extends from Grand Street to South 7th
Street, Williamsburgh.

Grand Street Ferry, from Grand Street to Grand Street, 'Wil¬
liamsburgh, is 900 yds. in length.

Houston Street Ferry, from Houston Street to Grand Street,
Williamsburgh, 700 yds., is leased to the Houston Street
Ferry Co. until 1863, at $6,500 per annum.

Tenth Street Ferry, from 10th Street to Green Point, is leased
until 1865, at $250 per annum.

Twenty-Third Street Ferry, from 23d Street to Green Point, is
leased until 1863, at $100 per annum.

Hunters Paint Ferry, from 34th Street to Hunters Point, Queens
Co., is leased to A. W. Winants until 1867, at $100 per an¬

Blackwells Island Ferry extends from 61st Street to Blackwells

Hdlgate Ferry, from 86th Street to Astoria, Queens co., is leased
to S. A. Halsey until 1867, at $50 per annum.

Wards Island Ferry extends from 106th Street to Wards Island.

Randalls Island Ferries extend from 122d Street to the Institu¬
tions under the charge of the Ten Governors, and from 117th
Street to the House of Refuge.

Jersey City Ferry, from Cortland Street to Jersey City, 1
mile, is leased to the Jersey City Ferry Co. until 1866, at
$5,000 per annum.

Barclay Street Ferry, from Barclay Street to Hoboken, N. J., is
leased to J. C. & R. L. Stevens until 1865, at $100 per an¬

Canal Street Ferry, from Canal Street to Hoboken, N. J., is leased
to J. C. & R. L. Stevens until 1860, at $600 per annum.

Christopher Street Ferry, from Christopher Street to Hoboken,
N. J., is leased to J. C. & R. B. Stevens until 1862, at $350
pier annum.

Weehawken Ferry extends from 42d Street to Weehawken, N. J.

Elysian Fields Ferry extends from 19th Street toElysian Fields,
N. J.

The Union Ferry Co. owned on the 1st of Nov. 1858, eighteen

boats, valued at $489,800.
i Some of the principal facts concerning the city rail roads

are as follows

Cars run at frequent intervals and use horse-power. Fare,
uniformly 5 cents. On 3d Avenue to Harlem, 6 cents,

Second Avenue extends from Peck Slip, through Pearl, Chat¬
ham, Bowery, Grand, and Chrystie Streets and 2d Avenue, to
23d Street;, thence to 42d Street. Returns through 2d Avenue,
2-3d Street, 1st Avenue, Allen and Grand Streets, Bowery, Chat-
nam, Oliver, and South Streets.

Third Avenue extends through Park Row, Chatham, Bowery,
3d Avenue, and Yorkville, to Harlem River Bridge, 129th St.

New Fork <& Harlem R. R. extends through Park Row, Cen¬
ter, Broome, and Bowery Streets, to 4th Avenue, aud up to 42d
Street, where locomotive trains stop.

Sixth Avenue extends through Vesey, Church, Chambers, W.
Broadway, Canal, Varick, and Carmine Streets, and 6th Ave¬
nue, to 44th Street.

Eighth Avenue extends through Vesey, Church, Chambers,
W. Broadway, Canal, and Hudson Streets and 8th Avenue to
W. 59th Street.

Ninth Avenue, track laid and used to 54th St.

The Hudson River R. R. and New Haven R. R. run no city

The omnibuses all have the names of their routes painted
upon the outside. The rates of fare are 4,5, or 6 cts., which is
paid without regard to distance traveled upon or within them.
Licenses are granted annually; and in 1858 439 stage licenses
were taken at $20, and 5 out-of-town lines, at $5 per stage,
amounting in the aggregate to $10,355. All other conveyances
for public hire are also licensed, the number in 1868 being, hacks,
402, and special hacks, 320.

8 Most of the suburban districts of New York within this State
are particularly noticed in this work in the counties and towns
in which they are located. Jersey City, which has grown up
within a few years, had, in 1855, 21,715 inhabitants. It is the
terminus of the New Jersey R. R., connecting with lines s. and
w., and the Union R. R., connecting with the New York
& Erie
and the Northern New Jersey R. R. It is the landing place of
the Cunard steamers, the seat of important manufactures, and
the residence of multitudes doing business in New York City.
Hoboken City is also a place of considerable importance from
its proximity to the city. It had, in 1855, 6,727 inhabitants.
Hudson City, in the rear of these, had 3,322 inhabitants; and
numerous other places along the Hudson in N. J. are receiving
attention as desirable places for homes.

3 The Free Academy was established by an act of May 7, 1857,
subject to a popular vote, which gave 19,404 for and 3,409 against
the measure. An edifice in the gothic style of the townhalls
of the Netherlands, 80 by 100 ft., was erected on Lexington Ave¬
nue, corner of 23d Street, in 1848, with accommodations for


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