was incorp. March 28,1857. It has 2 courses of lectures annu¬
NEW YORK COUNTY. 431
which no reports are made collectively to the public. Many of these have special courses of study,
or are limited to objects not embraced in a general plan of education. Several of these are nume¬
rously attended; and in some the extent of the course of study is equal to that in our colleges.1
About 250 periodicals, embracing daily, tri-weekly, semi-weekly, weekly, semi-monthly, monthly,
and quarterly, are issued in the city of New York, counting under one title the several editions
issued from the same press, unless bearing different names.2
The New York Preparatory School of Medicine, incorp. April
13, 1859, has not been fully organized. Its charter allows it
to confer the degree of Bachelor of Medicine upon persons of
not less than 19 years of age, after sustaining an examination
in the studies embraced in its course, and places it under the
visitation of the Regents.
The College of Pharmacy, chartered April 25,1831, has rooms
in the New York Medical College, at.which lectures are delivered
4 months annually, on Chemistry, Materia Medica, and Botany,
and diplomas are given. By an act of March 11,1839, a diploma
from this college is necessary for a person not otherwise duly
qualified, to act as an apothecary in the city.
The New York County Medical Society was formed July 12,
1806, and now numbers 450 members.
The Pathological Society for improvement in medical practice
The Academy of Medicine was formed in 1847 and incorp. in
1851. It meets monthly at the University, and. sends 5 repre¬
sentatives to the State Medical Society. There are several
other medical and surgical societies in various parts of the city.
The General Theological Seminary of the Prot. P. Church of
the XT. S. was established at New Haven in 1819 and removed to
this city in 1822. It was incorp. April 5, 1822, and is well
endowed. Its library numbers over 12,000 volumes. It occupies
2 handsome stone buildings, each 50 by 110 ft. on 20th St., be¬
tween 9th and 10th Avenues. Its trustees consist of the Bishops
of the U. S. and others appointed in proportion to moneys
granted to the seminary.
The Union Theological Seminary (Presb.) was founded in 1836,
and incorp.. March 27, 1839. It is located in Waverly Place, on
8th St., and near Washington Square. It has a library of 16,000
volumes. Its Board of Directors are clergymen and laymen, an
equal number of each, elected for 4 years.
Commercial colleges, writing schools, and studios for instruction
in the fine arts, are numerous. (See p. 748.) The School of Design
at the Cooper Union is eminent among these for the extent of
its facilities and the numbers that avail themselves of them.
Music, drawing, and painting are carefully taught in many of
the city schools; and the facilities at the Free Academy for these
studies are superior to those in most other institutions.
1 The Protestant Episcopal Public School was founded in 1710,
and has continued until the present time. At some future time
it will be largely aided by a bequest made Sept. 20, 1796, by Dr.
Jolm Baker, who, having no heirs, devised his country seat near
80th St.,'on the East Iliver, embracing 46 acres, for a charity
school. With a prudent forecast, the testator preserved the pro¬
perty from sale until after the death of 9 persons then living;
and the dense part of the city has already approached the
premises. An act passed April 16, 1859, authorized the sale of
portions, but no benefit has hitherto been received. In April,
1859, 3 of the 9 lives were existing.
The following are the principal of the Koman Catholic
The College of St. Francis Xavier, 39 W. 15th St., is an institu¬
tion under the care of 10 Jesuit priests.
Convent of the Most Holy Redeemer, in 3d St., is under the care
of 7 priests of the Order of Redemptorists.
St. Vincent’s Academy, 44 2d St., is under the care of the
Brothers of the Christian Schools.
Academy of the Holy Infancy, in Manhattanville, and the
Convent and Academy of the Sacred Heart, in Manhattanville,
are under the charge of the Ladies of the Sacred Heart; the
latter has 180 pupils. An institution of the same name at 49 W.
17th St., under similar direction, has 86 pupils.
Mother House and Academy of Mount St. Vincent, on 105th
St., upon the premises of the Central Park, has 180 pupils.
St. Mary’s School, at 229 East Broadway, is under the charge
of Sisters of Charity, and has 108 pupils.
St. Peter’s School, at 16 Barclay St., is under the charge of
Sisters of Charity, and has 80 pupils.
St. Joseph’s School, on 6th Avenue, is under the charge of
Sisters of Charity.
St. Lawrence School, Yorkville, is under the charge of Sisters
of Charity, and has 40 pupils.
St. Stephen’s School.
St. Vincent’s School has 80 boys and 50 girls; and 65 girls in
the preparatory department.
Free Catholic Schools.—There are 25 schools of this class re¬
ported in the city; at which 4,920 boys and 5,530 girls are taught.
Most of the schools have male and female departments; and of
these 7 are taught by Brothers of the Christian Schools, 9 by
Sisters of Charity, 2 by Ladies of the Sacred Heart, 2, by Sisters
of Notre Dame, 1 by Sisters of Mercy,and 1 by lay teachers.
Of several the teachers are not specified. These schools are
named St. Patrick’s, St. Mary’s, St. Joseph’s, St. James’s, St.
Francis Xavier’s, Manhattanville, St. Bridget’s, Transfiguration,
Mount St. YinCent, St. Lawrence, Sacred Heart Free School, St.
Catharine’s, Most Holy Redeemer’s, St. Alphonso’s, St. Vincent
de Paul’s, Nativitj7, St. Columba’s, Holy Cross, St. Stephen’s, St.
John the Evangelist’s, St. Paul’s, Immaculate Conception, St.
Nicholas, St. Francis’s, and St. Johns’s.
2 New York Gazette, the first paper published in the Colony
of New York, was commenced in 1725 by William Brad¬
ford. It was the fifth then in existence in the Ameri¬
can Colonies. Bradford continued its publisher about
17 years. In 1742 its name was changed to the
New York Gazette and Weekly Post' Boy, and it was published
by James Parker and a succession of owners until 1773,
. when it was discontinued.
New York Weekly Journal, the second paper in the Colony, was
commenced in New Yorkinl733 by John Peter Zenger.
He died in 1746, and the paper was conducted by his
widow, and afterward by his son, until 1752, when it
was discontinued. This paper opposed the administra¬
tion of Governor Crosby and supported the interest of j
Rip Van Dam, who had previously conducted the ad¬
ministration. The ballads, serious charges, and, above
all, the home truths in his democratic journal irritated
Crosby and his Council to madness. Zenger was con¬
fined several months by order of the Governor and
Council for printing and publishing seditious libels,
treated with unwarrantable severity, deprived of pen,
' ink, and paper, and denied the visits of his friends.
The popular feeling, however, was strongly against
these proceedings. The Assembly, notwithstanding tho
application of the Governor, refused to concur with
him and his Council. The Mayor and the magistrates
also refused to obey the mandate of the Governor and
Council, and to attend the burning of the libelous papers
“ by the common hangman and whipper, near tlie pil¬
lory.” The grand jury manifested equal contumacy,
and ignored the presentment against Zenger. The
attorney general was then directed to file an informa¬
tion. The judges refused to hear and allow the excep¬
tions taken by Zenger’s counsel, and excluded them
from the bar; but he was ably defended by other coun¬
sel, and especially by Andrew Hamilton, then a barrister
of Philadelphia. Zenger pleaded not guilty. His
counsel admitted the printing and publishing of the
papers, and offered to give their truth in evidence. The
counsel for the prosecution then said, “The jury must
find a verdict for the king;” :and gave the usual defi¬
nition of a libel, asserting that “ whether the person
defamed was a private man or a magistrate, whether
living or dead, whether the libel was true or false, or
whether the party against whbm it was made wras of
good or evil fame, it was nevertheless a libel.” He then
. quoted from the Acts of the Apostles and from one of
the Epistles of Peter, to show that it was a very great
offense to speak evil of dignities, and insisted upon' the
criminality by the laws of God and man of reviling
those in authority, and consequently that Mr. Zenger
had offended in a most notorious and gross manner in
scandalizing his Excellency our Governor, “who,” said
the counsel, “ is the king’s immediate representative, and
supreme magistrate of this province.” Mr. Hamilton re¬
marked in his reply, that we are charged with printing a
certain false, malicious, seditious, and scandalous libel.
The usord false must have some meaning; or else how
came it there? and he put the case, whether if tho
information had been for printing a certain true libel,
would that be the same thing. “ And to show the
court that I am in good earnest,” said he, “ I will agreo
that if he can prove the facts charged upon us to be
false, I will own them to be scandalous, seditious, and
a libel.” He then further offered that, to save the
prosecution the trouble of proving the papers to be
false, the defendant would prove them to be true. To
this Chief Justice De Lancey objected, “You cannot
be admitted to give the truth of a libel in evidence:
the law is clear that you cannot justify a libel.” Mr.
Hamilton maintained that leaving the court to deter¬
mine whether the words were libelous or not rendered
juries useless, or worse. “ It was true,” he said, “ in
times past it was a crime to speak truth, and in that
terrible court of Star Chamber many worthy and brave
men suffered for so doing; and yet even in that court
and in those bad times a great and good man durst say,
what I hope will not be taken amiss in me to say in
this place, to wit:—‘ The practice of information for
libels is a sword in the hands of a wicked king and an
arrant coward to cut down and destroy the innocent.