The one cannot, because of his high station, and the
other dare not, because of his want of courage, defend
himself in another manner.’ ” The jury, after a short
consultation, returned a verdict of not guilty, to the
great mortification, of the court and of Zenger’s perse¬
cutors, hut with great satisfaction to the people. Such
was the struggle which the press had to maintain only
one hundred years ago, and only forty years before the
Revolution gave to its freedom the sanction of Govern¬
ment and the impress of authority.—Introduction to
the Nat. History of the State by Wm. H. Seward.
432 NEW YORK COUNTY.
The Benevolent Institutions of New York are numerous, and comprehend measures
for the relief of nearly every variety of human suffering. Those under the direct charge of the
city have already "been noticed. The greater part of other institutions of like character are under
the management of companies incorporated for limited and special objects. Prominent among these
are the hospitals and dispensaries, affording relief to every class of the sick and distressed. Up to
1857, at these various institutions, 179,377 persons had been vaccinated; 1,666,559 patients had
been treated; and $297,761.60 bad been expended. The Legislature usually appropriates money
to several of these institutions.1 Several of the more important of the benevolent institutions
are supported wholly, or in part, by the State, among which are the Deaf and Dumb Asylum,2
the Institution for the Blind, and the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents.
The New York Evening Post was commenced in 1746, hut was
The New York Mercury was commenced by Hugh Gaine, and
continued by him 31 years. It was discontinued at the
close of the Revolutionary War.
The New York Gazette was commenced in 1759 by Wm. Wyman.
It continued irregularly until 1767, when it was dis¬
The American Chronicle was commenced by S. Farley in 1761,
and was discontinued the next year.
The New York Packet was commenced in 1763. It had only a
brief existence. -
The New York Journal and General Advertiser was commenced
in 1766 by John Holt.
The New York Chronicle was commenced in 1768 by Alexander
and James Robertson, and continued until 1772.
Rivington’s New York Gazetteer; or, The Connecticut, New Jersey,
Hudson’s River, and Quebec Weekly Advertiser, was
commenced in 1773 by James Rivington. This paper
appeared during the Revolution as
The Royal Gazette, semi-w., published by “James Rivington,
printer to the king’s most excellent majesty.”
New York Packet and American Advertiser was commenced in
1776 by Samuel Loudon. No other papers appeared in
New York until the close of the war.
For list of papers since the Revolution, see p. 442.
1 The New York Hospital, founded in 1770, was incorp. June
13,1771, and is under the care of 26 governors. It has two very
•*. extensive establishments,—the hospital proper, upon Broadway,
between Worth and Duane Sts., and the Bloomingdale Lunatic
Asylum, on 117th St. near 10th Avenue. The first hospital,
built in 1773-75, was burned. A new one was soon after begun,
and while still unfinished was occupied by British and Hessian
troops for barracks, and it was not finally opened for patients
until Jan. 3,1791. On the 14th of March, 1806, the Legislature
enacted that $12,500 should be given to the hospital annually
for 50 years, on condition that apartments for various forms and
degrees of insanity should he prepared, and that an annual re¬
port he made to the Legislature. The sum thus appropriated
was to be chargeable upon duties on auction sales.- In 1801 a
lying-in ward was opened, and continued 20 years. In 1806 the
lunatic department was organized, and one of the buildings of
the present hospital was erected; hut in 1816 a change of site
was authorized. A library was founded in 1796, and a patho¬
logical cabinet in 1840; hut a suitable building was not provided
for the latter until 1856. In 1853 a new and spacious building,
S. of the main hospital, was erected, upon a plan tie most perfect
that experience could devise. It was finished in 1855, at a cost
of $140,103.92. Clinical instruction, both medical and surgical,
has long been given; and two operating theatres have been pro¬
vided for this purpose. The hospital on Broadway is now limited
to the receiving of cases of sudden injuries from accident, aud
non-contagious diseases in which there is.-prospect of improve¬
ment ; and it is not intended for the support of the incurable,
or to supply in any sense the place of a poorhouse. Those re¬
ceived are either supported gratuitously, or pay at a rate barely
sufficient to defray cost of support. The former constitute about
40 per cent, of the entire number treated. Seamen are received
and their expenses are paid wholly or in part from the hospital
money paid by the U. S. Government. From Feb. 1, 1792, to
1856,106,111 patients had been received, of whom 77,390 had
been cured and 4,768 relieved. Of the 10,893 who died, many
were brought in from the street in a dying condition. Nearly
4,000 now receive the benefits of the hospital yearly. '
The Lunatic Asylum, in 1818, was located at Bloomingdale.
A building was commenced May 7, 1818, and was opened to
patients in June, 1821. The plan comprehends a center build¬
ing 211 by 60 feet, with 2 detached wings. A wing for the vio¬
lent insane male patients was built in 1830, and another for the
like class of females in 1837, making the whole cost, up to 1839,
$200,000. In 1854 two spacious 2 story brick buildings were
erected, at a cost of $52,000. From May, 1821, to Jan. 1856,
4,182 patients were received here, of whom 1,911 were cured,
851 improved, and 471 died. The grounds have an extent of
about 40 acres, and are finely adapted to outdoor exercise in fine
weather. The annual expense of both institutions is about $146,000.
St. Vincent’s Hospital, at 102 and 104 E. 13th St., was esta¬
blished by, and is under the care of Sisters of Charity.
St. Luke’s Hospital is located at the corner of 5th Avenue and
54th St- The building was erected in 1854, and is designed to
accommodate 230 patients.
Jews’ Hospital is on W. 28th St., between 7th and 8th Avenues.
The society was formed and a building erected in-1854. The
hospital has received a bequest of $20,000 from the late Mr.
Touro, of New Orleans.
Woman’s Hospital, on Madison Avenue, was established in
Feb. 1855, by Dr. J. Marion Sims, and incorp. April 18, 1857,
under 27 governors.
New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, at the corner of 2d Avenue
and 13th St., was incorp. March 29, 1822. The present building
was completed in 1856, at a cost of $41,252.39, including the lot.
It has usually received appropriations from the city and State.
Previous to 1856, 51,580 persons had received treatment in tlie
New York Ophthalmic Hospital, on Stuyvesant St., was in¬
corp. April 21, 1852, and opened May 25 following. A course
of lectures upon diseases of the eye is delivered annually.
The Children’s Hospital, on E. 51st St., near Lexington
Avenue, was established for the cure of poor children otherwise
destitute of aid. It is under the care of an association of ladies
New Asylum for Lying-in Women, at 85 Marion St., is under
the care of lady managers.
The New York Dispensary, on White, corner of Center St.,
was established in 1790, and incorp. April 8, 1795. It supplies
the district s. of a line passing through Spring, Broadway, 14th,
1st Avenue, Allen, and Pike Sts.
The Eastern Dispensary, at 74 Ludlow St., was incorp. April
25,1832. It supplies the district e. of the latter and s. of 14th St.
The Northern Dispensary, on Christopher, corner of 6th St.,
was incorp. Nov. 28, 1828, and opened in 1829. Its district lies
W. of Broadway, between Spring and 23d Sts.
The Demilt Dispensary, on the corner of 23d St. and 2d
Avenue, was incorp. May 7,1851. It was founded upon the be¬
quest of Miss Demilt, and cost about $30,000. Its district is E.
of 5th Avenue, between 14th and 40th Sts.
North Western Dispensary, at 511 8th Avenue, Was incorp.
May 29,1852. Its district is w. of 5th Avenue, between 23d and
The German Dispensary, at 132 New Canal St., was organized
in Jan. 1857. Professors of the College of Physicians serv
gratuitously, and have distributed the labor into divisions.
The Homeopathic Dispensary, at 59 Bond St., was established
in 1855 by Dr. Otto Fullgraff, and is supported entirely by private
2 The New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb was in¬
corp. April 15,1817, and opened May 12,1818. It was located
in the “New City Hall” until 1839, when it was removed to E,
50th St., corner of 4th Avenue,—the premises now occupied by
Columbia College. It there remained until the wants of the
institution required more ample accommodations and tlie
growth of the city suggested a retreat from the approaching
pressure of business. A fine tract of nearly 40 acres at Fan wood,
on the Hudson, on 164th St., was accordingly purchased, and
the erection of buildings was commenced in 1853. They are in
the aggregate 650 feet in length, and cover 2 acres. The insti¬
tution has accommodations for 450 pupils. The work was suffi¬
ciently advanced to justify removal toward the close of 1856.
The cost greatly exceeded the estimate; and under an act of
April, 1857, the institution was assumed by the State, with all
the property connected therewith. Pupils are received from
every co. of the State, and to a limited extent from New Jersey.
It is strictly an educational institution, and is designed to im¬
part a useful amount of literary instruction, and the knowledge
of some mechanical operation by which to gain support. Dr.
Harvey P. Peet has been for many years. President of the Insti¬
The New York Institution for the Blind, incorp. April 21,1831,
was opened March 15,1832, principally through the influence
of Dr. Samuel Akerly, Samuel Wood, and Dr. John D. Russ. A