NIAGARA COUNTY. 451
Four Mile, Six Mile, Twelve Mile, and Eighteen Mile Creeks,—named from their respective dis¬
tances from the mouth of Niagara River,—Fish and Golden Hill Creeks, all emptying into Lake
Ontario; Mud Creek and East Branch, tributaries of Tonawanda Creek, and Cayuga and Gill
Creeks, tributaries of Niagara River. The streams that flow n. have all worn deep ravines in the
drift deposits; and they are frequently interrupted by falls, furnishing abundance of water-power.
A strip of land extending from the summit of the mountain ridge about 2 mi. s. is covered
with a sandy loam, and the remainder of the upper terrace is clayey, largely intermixed with
muck along the s. border. The soil between the mountain and lake ridges is a clayey loam, and
along the lake ridge and N. of it it is a sandy and gravelly loam. The people are principally
engaged in grain raising, for which the co. is most admirably adapted; barley, oats, corn, and
potatoes are the staple agricultural products.1 The manufacture of flour and other articles is
largely carried on at Lockport, and the manufacturing interests at Niagara Falls are on the
increase. The vast water power that can be made available at the falls will continually attract
the attention of practical men, until eventually an immense manufacturing interest will be built up.
The co. seat is located at the village of Lockport.2 The courthouse is a stone building erected
upon a fine lot in the w. part of the village.3 The jail, situated upon the same lot, is a well con¬
structed stone building, but destitute of means of ventilation. The average number of inmates is
27. The co. clerk’s office is a stone fireproof building contiguous to the courthouse.4 The poor-
house is located upon a farm of 130 acres 3 mi. n. w. of the courthouse. The average number of
inmates is 95, supported at a weekly cost of 50 cts. each. The farm yields a revenue of $1000.
A teacher is constantly employed to teach the children and to exercise a constant supervision over
them. The insane are properly provided for, and are uniformly treated kindly.5
The Erie Canal enters the co. near the n. line of Royalton, and extends s. w. to Lockport, thence
nearly due s. to Tonawanda Creek, and thence along that creek to its mouth. The heaviest and
most extensive work upon the canal is at Lockport, where the passage of the mountain ridge, is
effected. A series of combined double locks, 5 in number, overcomes an elevation of 56 ft., and
from the summit a deep cut through the solid limestone extends several miles westward.6 The
Rochester, Lockport, & Niagara Falls Division of the N. Y. Central R. R. extends through Royal¬
ton, Lockport, Cambria, and Niagara, and a corner of Lewiston and Wheatfield, terminating at
Suspension Bridge upon Niagara River. The Buffalo & Lockport Branch R. R. extends s. w.
from Lockport through Cambria, Pendleton, and Wheatfield. The Buffalo & Niagara Falls R. R.
extends along Niagara River through Niagara and Wheatfield, and a n. branch is extended to
Lewiston. The Canandaigua & Niagara Falls Branch R. R. unites with the B. & N. F. R. R. at
Tonawanda.7 Three daily and five weekly newspapers are published in the co.8
The Lewiston Sentinel was commenced at Lewis.on in 1823 by
James 0. Daily. It soon after passed into the hands
of Oliver Grace, who removed it to Lockport and issued
The Niagara Sentinel. In 1828 it was united with The Lockport
The Gazette was started at Lockport in 1833 by P. Baker. Is
1834 it was united with The Balance.
The Niagara Democrat was started at Lockport in 1835 by
Turner & Lyon. In 1837 it was united with The
Balance and issued as
The Niagara Democrat and Lockport Balance. The latter part
of the title was soon dropped. In 1839 it passed into
the hands of T. P. Scoville; and in 1846, into those of
Turner k McCollum. It was continued by different
publishers until 1858, when it was united with The
Lockport Advertiser. The weekly edition is now
The Niagara Democrat, by A. S. Prentiss.
The Niagara Cataract was commenced at Lockpoi t in 1846 by
R. H. Stevens, and was continued by Humphrey k Fox
and C. J. Fox until 1851.
The Daily Gazette was published at Niagara Falls during the
summer of 1859 by Pool k Sleeper.
The Lockport Daily Advertiser was commenced in Feb. 1854, by
A. S. Prentiss. June 1, 1858, it was united with The
The Iiochport Daily Advertiser and Demo¬
crat, under which title#it is still issued.
The Niagara Courier was started "at Lockport, May 1, 1827, by
M. Cadwallader. It was successively issued by George
Reese, T. T. Flagler, Crandall & Brigham, C. L. Skeels,
and S. S. Pomroy.
The Lockport Daily Courier was commenced by Crandall k
Brigham in 1844, and continued successively by D. S.
Crandall, C. L. Skeels, and S. S. Pomroy, until 1859,
when both the daily and weekly were united with The
Journal; the daily as
The Journal and Courier, and the weekly bj
Wheat formed the great staple of the co. until ahout 1850,
when the midge commenced its ravages.
When the co. was first erected, the co. seat was fixed at Buf¬
falo. The buildings were given up to Erie co. upon the erection
of the latter county.
This building was erected in 1824. The first co. officers were,
Augustus Porter, Fust Judge; Louis S. Le Couteulx, Co. Clerk;
Asa Ransom, Sheriff; and Archibald S. Clarke, Surrogate.
Built in 1856, at-a cost of $13,000.
6 The Senate Committee in 1856 concluded the report upon
this institution as follows:—“ The house is well kept, and by
the result proves that, as a question of economy merely, it is
less expensive to maintain a good poorhouse than it is a poor
The project of building a ship canal around Niagara Falls has
from time to time excited much attention, and several surveys
have been made, but thus far without result. The earliest in¬
corporation for this object was in 1798.
t In 1838 a horse-car R. R. was built from Lewiston, 3 mi., to
connect with the Lockport & Niagara Falls R.R.; but the track
has been transferred to the Central R. R. Co. The Niagara &
Lake Ontario R. R., extending from Niagara Falls to Youngstown,
has been built, but it is not yet in operation.
The Niagara Democrat, the first paper published in the co.,
was started at Lewiston in 1821 by Benjamin Furguson.
In the following year it was removed to Lockport, and
soon after changed to
The Lockport Observatory. In Aug. 1822, it passed into the
hands of Orsamus Turner, and in 1828 it was united with
the Niagara Sentinel and issued as
The Sentinel and Observatory. In 1828, Peter Besangon, jr., be¬
came the proprietor, and changed it to
The Lockport Journal. In 1829 it was purchased by Asa Story
and changed to
The Lockport Balance. In 1834 it was united with The Gazette,
under the name of
The Balance and Gazette. It was soon afterward changed again to
The Lockport Balance. It was successively published by Isaac
C. Colton and T. II. Hyatt until 1837, when it wras sold to
Turner & Lyon and merged in The Niagara Democrat.