Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 481
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gravelly loam. Limestone and gypsum are both found in abundance.1 A large, sulphur spring ia
found in the n. w. corner. Camlllus, (p. v.,) on Nine Mile Creek, near the center of the
town, was incorp. in 1852; it contains 8 churches, 2 flouring mills, and 552 inhabitants. Amboy,
in the
N. E. part, contains a church and 170 inhabitants. Belle Isle, (p. v.,) on the canal,
1 mi.
e. of Amboy, contains 1 church and 140 inhabitants. Fafrmoimt is a p. o. ne'ar the e.
border. The first settler was Capt. Isaac Lindsay, who located upon Lot 80 in 1790.2 The first
church (Presb.) was formed in 1817. There are 6 churches in town.3


CICERO—was formed from Lysander, Feb. 20, 1807. Clay was taken off in 1827. It lies
upon Oneida Lake, in the
n. e. comer of the co. Its surface is level or very slightly undulating.
An extensive swamp in the s.
e part occupies one-third of the entire surface,4 and another con¬
siderable swamp extends along the lake shore w. of South Bay. The soil is a clayey and sandy
loam. Cicero Corners, (Cicero p. o.,) near the center of the w. line, contains 2 churches
and 242 inhabitants. Brewerton, (p. v.,) on the outlet of Oneida Lake, contains 2 churches
and 621 inhabitants, of whom 421 are in this town. South Bay and Frenchmans Island are places
of resort for pleasure seekers.5 Fort Brewerton,6 one of the line of English fortifications between
Oswego and the Mohawk Yalley, was situated in Oswego co., on the shore of Oneida Outlet, oppo¬
site the present village of Brewerton. The first settlement was made by Dexter, a black¬
smith, who located on the river, opposite the fort, in 1790.7 The first church (Presb.) was'formed
at Cicero Corners, in 1819; Rev-. James Shepard was the first preacher. The census reports 6
churches in town.8

CEAY—was formed from Cicero, April 16, 1827. It is the central town upon the n. border
of the co. Its surface is very flat, and but little elevated above the level of Oneida Lake. Seneca
River forms the w. and Oneida River the n. boundary. These streams are sluggish; and along
the latter is an extensive swampy region. The soil is in part clayey, and in part a light sandy
loam. Fruit and onions are largely produced. Belgium, (Clay p.o.,) upon Seneca River,
contains a church and 190 inhabitants; Euclid (p. v.) 2 churches and 140 inhabitants; Cen¬
terville,9 (Plank Road p. o.,) on the line of Cicero, 2 churches and 111 inhabitants. Tliree
River Point (p. v.) lies at the junction of Oneida and Seneca Rivers, in the
n. w. corner.10
Pop. 90. The first settler was Patrick McGee, who located at Three River Point, in 1793.11 The first
church (Evang. Luth.) was located in the
n. e. part of the town. The census reports 4 churches.12

DEWITT18—was formed from Manlius, April 12, 1835. A portion of Syracuse was annexed
in 1858. It is an interior town, lying
n. e. of the center of the co. The n. half is level, and the
s. broken and hilly. The declivities of the hills are usually steep, and their summits are 500 to
700 ft. above the valleys. Butternut Creek, flowing sr., divides the highlands into two nearly equal
ridges. Upon this stream are several fine mill sites. In the s. w. corner, about 1 mi. n. w. of

than 15,000 sq. ft. The vats are usually arranged in three different
grades, the -water heing drawn down at different times, and the
salt being allowed to crystallize only in the lowest one, In this
process the impurities nearly all crystallize before the brine is
drawn into the last series of vats, leaving pure salt. It is found
that, on an average, the covers can be taken off only 70 days in
a season. More than 500 acres are now covered by solar works;
and the aggregate number of covers is 30,786, and the amount
of evaporating surface 8,403,840 sq. ft. The solar salt is much
coarser than that produced by boiling. Large quantities of both
kinds are ground for dairy and table purposes. The aggregate
amount of bushels of salt manufactured in 1858 was as






■ Liverpool..............

Geddes .................

















The State levies a duty of one cent per bushel on all salt
manufactured; and from the revenue so derived the State
works are kept up. The salt is usually packed in bbls., each
containing 280 lbs., or 5 bushels. The ground salt, for table and
dairy use, is packed in sacks, containing 14, 20, or 28 lbs., and
in small boxes. The barrels are principally manufactured in
the towns lying n. of the city.

1 It is said that the first gypsum in the IF. S. was found in
this town in 1792, by Wm. Lindsay. De Witt Clinton, Samuel
Young, and other distinguished individuals visited the locality
in 1809; and about the same time quarrying was commenced
by a joint stock company, and a successful business was carried
on for many years.

2 James, Wm., and Elijah Lindsay, brothers of the first settler,
came soon after. Among the other early settlers were Nicholas
Lamberson, Moses Carpenter, Judge Wm. Stevens, Dr. J. H.
Frisbie, Wm. Reed, Selden Leonard, and David Hinsdale. Daniel
Veal taught the first school, in 1808; Isaac Lindsay kept the
first inn, in 1793; John Tomlinson the first store, in 1808;
David Munro, Wm. Wheeler, and Samuel Dowers built the first
saw and grist mills, in 1806.

* 2 M. E, 2 Presb., 1 Bap., and R. C! >

4 The Indian name of this swamp is Ka-nugh-wa-ka, where
the rabbits run.”

5 See p. 521.

6 The Indian name of this locality is Oh-saha-u-ny-tah-se-ugh-
kah, “ where the water runs out of Oneida Lake.”

t Among the other early settlers were Oliver Stevens, Ryal
Bingham, Elnathan Botchford, John Leach, and Patrick McGee.
The first child born was John L. Stevens, in 1802. Geo. Ramsay
taught the first school, in 1792; Patrick McGee kept the first
inn, in 1791; Isaac Cody the first store, in 1818; and Moses and
Freeman Hotchkiss built the first sawmill, in 1823.

8 2 M. E., 2 Disciples, Presb., and Union.

9 Locally known as “Podunk.”

10 The junction of these two rivers forms the Oswego Rivei,
and from this is derived the name of the village.

11 Among the other early settlers were Adam Coon, in 1798;
Simeon Baker, in 1799; John Lynn, in 1800; and Joshua Kinne

and Elijah Pinckney, inl807.  Hall taught the first school,

in 1808; A. L. Soule kept the first store; and Abraham Young
built the first sawmill.

12 2 M. E., Bap., and Evang. Luth.

Named from Moses De Witt, an early settler and prominent



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