Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 503
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The first settlements in the co. are supposed to have been made by the Dutch, soon after the first
occupation of Manhattan Island. Traces of an early occupation were found upon the first advent
of the progenitors of the present race, among which was a road known as the “ Old Mine Road,”
extending from the s. line of the co. along the valley of the Shawangunk to Esopus, on the Hud¬
son. These settlements were broken up; and no record is left of them. The next race of settlers
came in about the commencement of the 18th century and located in various parts of the co.
They were Dutch, French Huguenots, and English, nearly all seeking liberty in the wilderness.
The first patent issued was the Minisink Patent, in 1704, embracing the greater part of the co.
lying upon the Shawangunk Mts., and a considerable portion of Sullivan co. The remaining
portions of the co. were embraced in Cheesecock’s Patent,1 issued in 1707, embracing the s.
e. part;
tho Wawayanda Patent,2 issued in 1703, embracing the w. and
n. parts; and the John Evans
Patent,3 which was granted in the year 1694. The boundaries of these various patents were
so vague that it was found impossible to locate them without conflicting with others; and serious
difficulties arose between the different claimants.4

The policy of granting large patents was soon abandoned, and the remaining parts of the co.
were patented in small tracts to actual settlers, from about 1718 to 1750. The settlements pro¬
gressed but slowly, in consequence of the fear of Indian hostilities. During the French War of
1755 the frontier settlements were often attacked by small parties of hostile Indians and the de¬
fenseless inhabitants were murdered’ and carried into captivity. The principal weight of these
attacks fell upon the settlements in the Neversink Yalley. During the Revolution the frontiers
were again constantly in a state of alarm. In July, 1778, Brant, at the head of a large Indian
force, laid waste the whole Minisink settlement; and on his retreat the disastrous battle of Mini-
sink was fought, in which nearly the whole force of the Americans was destroyed.5

The eastern part of the co. was also the scene of stirring military events. The importance of the
passes through the Highlands was early appreciated by Washington, and strong fortifications were
thrown up at various points to protect them. Fort Montgomery was erected on the river, at the s.
line of the co., and Fort Clinton on the opposite side of a small creek in Rockland co. Several

The Signs of thv Times, semi-mo., was commenced at
New Vernon, in Mount Hope, in 1832, by Gilbert
Beebe. In 1847 it was removed to Middletown, where
it is now published by G. J. Beebe.

The Tablets of Rural Economy was published at Newburgh in
1832 by J. W. Bisevels.

The Sentinel was published at Minisink, now Wawayanda, in
1833, by Peter K. Allen.

The Newburgh Journal was commenced in 1833 by J. D.
Spaulding. Its name was afterward changed to

The Highland. Conrier. It was issued in 1855 by
Wm. E. Smiley, and in 1858 passed into the hands of
Edward Nixon. It is now issued by Rufus A. Reed as

The Highland Chieftain.

The Reformed Presbyterian was commenced at Newburgh in
1836 by Rev. Moses Roney. In a short time it was re¬
moved to Pittsburgh, Penn.

The Family Visitor was published a short time at Newburgh
in 1839 by D. L. Proudfit.

The Middletown Courier was started in April, 1840, by A. A.
Bensel. In 1846 it was removed to Kingston and
changed to the Ulster Democrat.

The True Whig was started at Goshen Aug. 5,1842, by R. C. S.
Hendries. In 1845 it was merged in the Goshen

The Democratic Standard was commenced at Goshen in the fall
of 1843 by Vait & Donovan. In 1844 it was changed to

The Goshen Clarion, and it was cpntinued until 1849.

The Christian Instructor was started at Newburgh in 1845 by

D. L. Proudfit, and in a short time it was removed to

The Orange County News was started at Middletown in July,
1846, by John L. Brown, and was discontinued in 1849.

The Banner of Liberty was commenced at Middletown
in Aug. 1848, by Gilbert A. Beebe, as a monthly. In
1849 it was issued semi-monthly; and it is now published
as a weekly.

Freedom’s Guard was published at Middletown in Aug. 1849, by
W. L. Beebe.

Tlte Newburgh Excelsior was started in 1849 by Thomas George.
In 1851 it was purchased by E. M. Ruttenber and merged
in the Newburgh Telegraph.

Tri States Union was commenced at Port Jervis, Nov. 7,
1851, by John J. Minford. In 1854 E. E. Barnes .be¬
came proprietor; and in 1855 it passed into the hands
of James H. Norton, by whom it is still published.

The Mirror of Temperance was started at Port Jervis in 1851
by J. D. Barlow. In 1852 John Dow assumed the pub¬
lication, and continued it until 1855.

The Whig Press was commenced at Middletown, Nov. 26,
1851, by John W. Hasbrouck, by whom it is still pub.

The Separate American, a quarterly publication printed for tho
colored people of the Separate American Methodist
Church, was commenced at Middletown in 1852 or
’53, Rev. David James, editor. It was discontinued in


The Sentinel was commenced at Port Jervis in Jan. 1855, by
John Williams. In June of the same year it was re¬
moved to Susquehanna, Penn.

The Literary Scrap Book, mo., was published at Newburgh in
1855 by R. Denton.

The Hardware filaii’s Newspaper, mo., was com¬
menced Aug. 1855, at Middletown, by John Williams,
by whom it is still published. It is issued from the
office of the Whig Press.

The Newburgh American was commenced at Newburgh in 1855
by R. P. L. Shafer
& Co.; it was soon discontinued.
The Catholic Library, octavo, mo., was commenced at
Newburgh in 1855 by John Ashurst.

The Newburgh Times was commenced at Newburgh
in 1856 by R. B. Hancock. It soon passed into the
hands of 11. H. Bloomer, its present publisher.

The Daily News was commenced at Newburgh in 1856 by
E. W. Gray. It was subsequently discontinued, and its
publication resumed in 1857 by E. M. Ruttenber & E. IV.
Gray. E. W. Gray
& Jos. Lawson, present ed. and pub.
The Acorn, a literary paper, was started in the year 1858.

The Sihyl, semi-mo., was commenced at Middletown in
July, 1856,. by Mrs. Dr. Lydia Sayer Hasbrouck. It is<
issued from the office of the Whig Press.

1 Cheesecocks.—March 27,1707, to Anna Bridges and 6 others,
a tract of upland and meadow called Cheesecocks, bounded sr. by
Capt. J. Evans and Dr. Bridges
& Co., w. by Bridges & Co. and
w. side of Highlands, s. by patent of Daniel Honan and Michael
Handon, and e. by the Christian patented lands of Haverstraw
and Hudson R. (Act March 17,1783.)

2 Wawayanda.—Queen Anne, on 29th of April, 1703, grantey
to Dr. John Bridges and 11 others certain tracts known as
Wawayanda and other tracts, bounded e. by the High Hills of
the Highlands and patent of Capt. John Evans, w. by line of O.
and U. cos., and W. by Minisink Hills, and S. by N. J. (Act March

2 This patent was set aside in 1699, by an act of the Colonial
Assembly. It was called
The Lordship and Manor of Fletcher-
and" occupied the whole river front from about opposite
Poughkeepsie to Stoney Point.

4 A portion of the territory was claimed by N. J., and several
collisions occurred between the settlers and the officers of the
State, and numerous outrages were perpetrated under the color
of law. The controversy was finally settled about 1767.

6 See page 642.


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