OTSEGO COUNTY. 537
PLAIHFIELD—was formed from Richfield, March 25,1799. It is the n.w. corner town of
the eo. Its surface is a broken and hilly upland. Unadilla River, forming the w. boundary, is
bordered by steep bluffs rising to the height of 400 to 600 ft. The soil is a clay and sandy loam.
Unadilla Forks, (p.v.,) at the junction of the e. and w. branches of Unadilla River, con¬
tains 2 churches, a hoe factory, flouring mill, sawmill, and machine shop. Pop. 253. Plain¬
field Center contains a church and 15 houses; Spooners Corners is a p. o.; Leon-
ardsville, (p.v.,) on the Unadilla, in the s. part, is mostly in Madison co. The first settlement
was made at and near Plainfield Center, in 1793, by Ruggles Spooner, Elias Wright, and John
Kilbourne.1 The first church (Bap.) was formed and the church erected in 1800; Rev. John
Wait the first preacher.2
RICMFUEEB—was formed from Otsego, April 10, 1792. Exeter and Plainfield were taken
off in 1799. It is the extreme northern town of the co. Its surface is rolling and moderately
hilly, with a mean elevation of 150 to 200 ft. above Schuyler Lake,—Pray and Nine Hills, on either
side of the head of the lake, rising about 200 ft. higher. Schuyler Lake, in the s. e. corner, occu¬
pies a deep valley; and into it flow several small streams from the n. and w. The soil is of a diver¬
sified character, consisting of gravel, slate, clay, and sandy loam, well cultivated and productive.
About 500,000 pounds of cheese are made in the town annually,—being more than double that made
in any other town in the co. Rictlfield Spring's, (p.v.,) near the head of Schuyler Lake, in
the n. e. corner of the town, contains 3 churches, a flouring mill, and 500 inhabitants.3 Monti¬
cello, (Richfield p. o.,) near the center, contains 2 churches and 200 inhabitants. Brighton
contains a church and about 15 houses. Settlements were made prior to the Revolution; hut
they were broken up during the war. The first settlers after the war were Seth Allen, Richard
and William Pray, John Beardsley, Joseph Coats, and John Kimball, in 1787.4 The first church
(Prot. E.) was formed at Monticello, May 20, 1799; Rev. Daniel Nash was the first pastor.5
ROSEBOOM®—was formed from Cherry Yalley, Nov. 23, 1854. It lies on the e. border of
the co., n. of the center. The surface is a hilly upland, broken hy the valleys of several streams.
The hills are generally rounded, and their summits elevated 300 to 350 ft. ahove Schoharie Kil.
The soil is a gravelly loam. Roseboom, (p.v.,) in the n.w. part, on the line of Middlefield,
contains a church and 111 inhabitants; and South Valley, (p. v.,) in the s. e. part, 2 churches
and 175 inhabitants. Pleasant Brook (p. o.) is a hamlet.6 The settlements in this town
were commenced about 1800. There are 5 churches in town.7
SPRIXGFIEEB—was formed from Cherry Yalley, March 3, 1797. It lies upon the n. line
of the co., e. of the center. The surface is a rolling and moderately hilly upland, the hills gene¬
rally rising about 200 ft. ahove the valleys. Mt. Wellington, e. of the head of Otsego Lake, in the
s. part of the town, is 300 to 400 ft. high. Summit Lake, in the n. part, in high water discharges
its waters both n. and s. The streams are small brooks. In the n. part is a deep sink, called “ The
Chyle,” into which a considerable stream of water runs and flows through a subterranean passage
to Braman’s Factory, where it again appears on the surface. The sink is tunnel-shaped, 240 feet
in circumference and 15 ft. deep. After heavy rains it is sometimes filled with water, which, while
discharging through the orifice below, often moves round in rapid gyrations. The soil is a black
and yellow loam, resting upon limestone and slate. More hops are grown in this town than in any
other town in the co. Springfield Center (p. v.) contains 2 churches, a tannery, and 15
4 Wm. Tunnieliff, Dan’l Hawks, John Hatch, Ebenezer Eaton,
and Jos. Rockwell settled at or near Richfield Springs in 1789;
Obadiah Beardsley and his son Obadiah, jr., the father and
grandfather of the late Levi Beardsley, and Hon. Samuel
Beardsley, of Utica, settled in this county in 1790. The first
birth was that of Orange Allen; and the first marriage, that
of Ebenezer Russell and Miss More. James S. Palmer taught
the first school, at Richfield Springs; Israel Rawson kept
the first inn, and Cyrus Robinson the first, store, at tlie
Springs; William Tunnieliff erected the first mill, at the same
8 The census reports 7 churches; 3 M. E., 2 Prot. E., Presb.,
6 Named from Abram Roseboom, who was one of the earliest
1 Abram Roseboom erected the first sawmill and carding ana
falling mill, in 1806, at Lodi; Dan’l Antisdale kept the first inn
and the first store, at the same place. iD 1832. The first gristmill
was erected at Lodi, by Brice & Bro,. in 1796,
3 The census reports 5 churches; 2 M. E., Evan. Luth.. Chris¬
tian, and Bap.
Sulphuretted hydrogen gas, 26.9 inches.
Sam’l Williams settled on the Unadilla, in the N. part, and
Benj. and Abel Clark, at the Forks, about the same time. The
first school was taught at Spooners Corners, hy Jas. Robinson,
in 1797-98. Wm. Lincoln kept the first inn, at Lloydville, and
Luce & Woodward the first store. Capt. Caleb Brown built the
first mill, in 1805, on the Unadilla.
The census reports 4 churches; 2 F. W. Bap., Presb., Bap.
Richfield Springs—from which the village derives its name—
are celebrated for their medicinal properties in the cure of cuta¬
neous disorders, liver complaint, scrofula, and similar diseases,
and large numbers of invalids are annually attracted here.
Prof. Reid has given the following as the result of an analysis
of a wine-gallon of the water of these springs:— Grains.
Bicarbonate of magnesia................................... 20
Chloride of sodium and magnesia...................... 1.05
Sulphate of magnesia....................................... 30
Hydrosulphate of magnesia and lime................. 2
Sulphate of lime............................................. 20
Solid matter..................................................... 153.05